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Different Antioxidant Defense Systems in Halophytes and Glycophytes to Overcome Salinity Stress

  • Prabhakaran Soundararajan
  • Abinaya Manivannan
  • Byoung Ryong JeongEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Tasks for Vegetation Science book series (TAVS, volume 49)

Abstract

Metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a side product. Chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, glycosomes, and plasma membranes are the predominant metabolically active cell organelles which release ROS. Plants possess enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems to maintain the ROS level. Enzymatic antioxidants include superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol/glutathione peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), and glutathione reductase (GR). Non-enzymatic antioxidants include ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH), proline, and phenolic compounds. Under stress conditions, ROS are excessively generated in the plant. Based on the tolerance level to the salinity plants are divided into two categories: glycophytes and halophytes. Glycophytes are salt-sensitive plants and halophytes are salt-resistant plants. To adapt to the saline environment, halophytes have evolved varied anatomical features such as a salt gland or bladder, vacuolar compartmentalization, and stomata closure timing. In glycophytes under salt stress, higher lipid peroxidation, impairment of photosynthesis, osmotic stress, and ionic imbalance cause excessive generation of ROS. Perhaps higher accumulation and uncontrollable level of ROS leads to cross-reaction with other vital metabolic pathways and damages macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, and nuclei acids. Whereas in halophytes, ROS are spatial and temporal in nature. Plants with an efficient antioxidant system generally have a higher tolerance against stress. In this chapter, antioxidant defense mechanisms present in glycophytes and halophytes are described using model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (glycophyte) and Cakile maritima, Suaeda salsa L., and Thellungiella halophila (halophytes).

Keywords

Antioxidant Glycophyte Halophyte Reactive oxygen species Salinity Stress 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Prabhakaran Soundararajan and Abinaya Manivannan were supported by a scholarship from the BK21 Plus Program, the Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Prabhakaran Soundararajan
    • 1
  • Abinaya Manivannan
    • 2
  • Byoung Ryong Jeong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Horticulture Major, Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Graduate SchoolGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Agriculture and Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Research Institute of Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea

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