Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Arthritis

  • Shakir Saleem
  • Riqaiyah Khan
  • Imran Kazmi
  • Muhammad Afzal


Arthritis is an inflammatory, chronic, autoimmune disorder identified by swelling, stiffness, and pain. It covers 0.5% of population of the world and leads to disability in joint. Synthetic drugs are used to treat these abnormal conditions but are associated with side effects like osteoporosis and gastric bleeding. Herbal drugs are becoming popular due to their less toxicity in comparison to synthetic drugs. Many therapeutic agents are developed from herbal drugs. Scientific reports explored the beneficial effects of herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis by various basic mechanisms like downregulation of inflammatory cytokines such as NF-jB, IL-6, TNF-a, and oxidative stress suppression; cartilage degradation inhibition; and increase of antioxidant potential. Medicinal plants contain various bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavonols, dihydroflavonols, coumarins, glycosylflavons, terpenes, phytoestrogens, anthraquinones, sesquiterpene lactones, thymoquinones, and lignans which play a significant role in ameliorating the effects of arthritis. In this chapter, we summarize updated information on RA including epidemiology, etiology, role of phytoconstituents in the treatment of arthritis, available treatments, and side effects of synthetic medicine in comparison to herbal medicine and individual herbal drugs.


Synthetic medicine Herbal drugs Phytochemicals Arthritis Health care 


  1. ADAM Medical Encyclopedia (2011) U.S. National Library of MedicineGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal V, Malavia AN (2005) Cytokine network and its manipulation in rheumatoid arthritis. J Indian Rheumatol Assoc 13:86–95Google Scholar
  3. Aggarwal S, Paridhavi M (2012) Herbal drug technology, 2nd edn. Orient Blackswan Private Limited, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal B, Das S, Pandey A (2011) Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.: a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Asian J Appl Sci 4(7):663–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmed S (2010) Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in arthritis: progress and promise. Arthritis Res Ther 12(2):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akkol EK (2008) In vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive actions of some Lamium species. J Ethnopharmacol 19:166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akroum S, Satta D, Lalaoui K (2009) Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic activities and phytochemical screening of some Algerian plants. Eur J Sci Res 31(2):289–295Google Scholar
  8. Alves CF, de Assis IP, Uber-Bucek E, Dal-Secco D, Napimoga MH (2009) Anti-inflammatory activity and possible mechanism of extract from Mikania laevigata in carrageenan-induced peritonitis. J Pharm Pharmacol 61:1097–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Amresh G, Singh PN, Rao CV (2007) Antinociceptive and antiarthritic activity of Cissampelos pareira roots. J Ethnopharmacol 111(3):531–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aquila S, Giner RM, Recio MC, Speqqzzini EP, Rios JL (2009) Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Cayaponia tayuya roots. J Ethnopharmacol 121:333–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arya V, Gupta VK, Kaur R (2011) A review on plants having anti-arthritic potential. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 7(2):131–136Google Scholar
  12. Ashafa OT, Afolayan AJ (2009) Screening the root extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata (Asteraceae) for antimicrobial potentials. J Med Plants Res 3(8):568–572Google Scholar
  13. Awasthi LP, Verma HN (2006) Boerhaavia diffusa - A wild herb with potent biological and anti-microbial properties. Asian Agric Hist 10(1):55–68Google Scholar
  14. Babu SA, Karki SS (2011) Anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of roots of Calotropis procera against different inflammation models. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(3):191–194Google Scholar
  15. Baccheti RK, Pandey DP, Joshi A, Rana V (2011) Chemical analysis of aerial parts of Justicia gendarussa. Int J Chem Tech Res 3(1):244–247Google Scholar
  16. Bansod MS, Virendra GK, Somkuwar AD (2010) Evaluation of analgesics and anti-inflammatory activity of a poly-herbal formulation. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2(2):1520–1527Google Scholar
  17. Barbara BG, Garrido G, Delgado R, Bosch F, Rabi MD (2010) A Mangifera indica L. extract could be used to treat neuropathic pain and implication of Mangiferin. Molecules 15(12):9035–9045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baroroh HN, Iskandar S, Rachmani EPN, Hertiani T, Ikawati Z (2014) Jatropha curcas Linn. leaves exert anti-arthritic activity on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Universamedicina 33:3–10Google Scholar
  19. Behbahani M, Ali AM, Muse R, Mohd NB (2007) Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of leaves of Barringtonia racemosa. J Med Plants Res 1(5):95–102Google Scholar
  20. Bhalerao AR, Desai SK, Serathia BR, Vartak KM, Doshi GM (2011) Anti-arthritic studies on Nyctanthes arbor tristis and Maharasnadi ghan. Sch Res Libr 3(4):101–110Google Scholar
  21. Bhangale J, Acharya S (2014) Anti-arthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. Indian J Exp Biol 52:215–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bosca L (2005) Nitric oxide and cell viability in inflammatory cells: a role for NO in macrophage function and fate. Toxicology 208:249–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bradshaw D, Hill CH, Nixon JS, Wilkinson SE (1993) Therapeutic potential of protein kinase C inhibitors. Agents Actions 38:135–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chandur U, Shadhidhar S, Chandrasekar SB, Rao NM (2011) Studies of preliminary phytochemical and anti-arthritic activity of heart wood of Cedrus deodar (Roxb.). Res J Pharm, Biol Chem Sci 2(3):654–660Google Scholar
  25. Chang SL, Chiang YM, Chang CL, Yeh HH, Shyur LF, Kuo YH, Yang WC (2007) Flavonoids, centaurein and centaureidin from Bidens pilosa, stimulate IFN-expression. J Ethnopharmacol 112:232–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chaudhary G, Dantu PK (2011) Morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Boerhaavia diffusa L. J Med Plants Res 5(11):2125–2130Google Scholar
  27. Chaurasia S (2009) Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. Am Eurasian J Sustain Agric 3:244–252Google Scholar
  28. Chen-Jian Z (2014) Therapeutic effects of standardized Vitex negundo Linn. seeds extract on complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Phytomedicine 21:838–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chiang YM, Chuang DY, Wang SY, Kuo YH, Shyur LF (2004) Metabolite profiling and chemopreventive bioactivity of plant extracts from Bidens pilos. J Ethnopharmacol 95:409–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chopade VV, Phatak AA, Upaganlawar AB (2008) Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Chemistry, traditional, medicinal uses and its pharmacological activities - a review. Pharmacogn Rev 2(3):157–162Google Scholar
  31. Christelle B, Johanne MP, Judith C, Philippe M, Georges BG, Caroline B, Jean-Pierrre P (2009) Protective effects of total fraction of avocado/soya bean unsaponifiables on the structural changes in experimental dog osteoarthritis: inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-13. Arthritis Res Ther 11(2):1–9Google Scholar
  32. Correa GM, Antonio FD (2012) Alcantara chemical constituents and biological activities of species of Justicia - a review. Rev Bras 1(3):2011Google Scholar
  33. Cui-Ping J, Xin H (2014) Anti-rheumatoid arthritic activity of flavonoids from Daphne genkwa Linn. Phytomedicine 21:830–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Curcuma longa (n.d.) Alternative medicine review monographs. pp 119–125Google Scholar
  35. Das K (2009) Medicinal plants for snake bite treatment-future focus. Ethnobot Leaflet 13:508–521Google Scholar
  36. Davis RH, Agnew PS, Shapiro E (1986a) Antiarthritic activity of anthraquinones found in aloe vera for podiatric medicine. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 76(2):1–8Google Scholar
  37. Davis RH, Agnew PS, Shapiro E (1986b) Anti arthritic activity of anthraquinones found in aloe for podiatric medicine. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 76(2):61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Deba F, Xuan TD, Yasuda M, Tawata S (2008) Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn. Var. radiata. Food Control 19:346–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ding H, Chin YW, Kinghorn AD, D’Ambrosio SM (2007) Chemo preventive characteristics of avocado fruit. Semin Cancer Biol 17:386–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Escandell JM, Recio MC, Manez S, Ginger RM, Cerda NM, Gil-Bensor RJL (2007) Dihydrocucurbitacin B inhibits delayed type hypersensitivity reactions by suppressing lymphocyte proliferation. J Pharmacol Expl Therapeut 322(3):1261–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Escandell JM, Keller P, Recio MC, Sazaqzuki T, Shirasawa S, Augenlicht L, Rios JL (2008) Activated kRas protects colon cancer cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis: the role of p53 and p21. Biochem Pharmacol 76:198–207PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Feng T, Su J, Ding ZH, Zheng YT, Li Y, Leng Y, Liu JK (2011) Chemical constituents and their bioactivities of “Tongling White Ginger” (Zingiber officinale). J Agric Food Chem 9(21):11690–11695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Firestein G (2003) Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature 423:356–361PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Funk JL, Oyarzo JN, Frye JB, Chen G, Lantz RC, Jolad SD (2006) Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevents experimental rheumatoid arthritis. NIH Public Access 69(3):351–355Google Scholar
  45. Galhena PB (2012) Anti-inflammatory activity is a possible mechanism by which the polyherbal formulation comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (root), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) mediates its anti hepatocarcinogenic effects. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012:108626PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garrido G, Delporte B, Quintero JNSA (2001) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang). Molecules 15(1):18–21Google Scholar
  47. Garrido G, Lemus G, Lodeiro Q (2004) In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica L. extract. Molecules 50(2):143–149Google Scholar
  48. Geroushi A (2010) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of Ferula hermonis root oil in experimental animals. Lat Am J Pharm 29:1436–1439Google Scholar
  49. Ghannadi A (2005) An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. J Med Food 8:488–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gheita T, Kenawy S (2012) Effectiveness of Nigella sativa oil in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients: a placebo controlled study. Phytother Res 26:1246–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ha MK (2011) Emodin inhibits proinflammatory responses and inactivates histone deacetylase 1 in hypoxic rheumatoid synoviocytes. Bio Pharm Bull 34:1432–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Herida RN, Salgado FF, Roncari FD, Moreira RRD (2005) Antidiarrhoeal effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts in mice. Braz J Pharmacogn 15(3):205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hsieh MS (2011) Using 18F-FDG microPET imaging to measure the inhibitory effects of Clematis chinensis Osbeck on the pro-inflammatory and degradative mediators associated with inflammatory arthritis. J Ethnopharmacol 136:511–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ibrahim KE, Al-Ashban RM, El-Sammani SA (2009) A study of the toxicity study of the Cat’s claw herbal medicine. Res J Pharmacol 3(3):52–57Google Scholar
  55. Ijeoma UR, Onyebuchi NC, Ositadimma US (2014) Evaluation of the anti-arthritic effect of Sterculia tragacantha (Lindl) leaf extract in rats. Am J Pharmacol Toxicol 9(2):107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jayalakshmi B, Raveesha KA, Amruthesh KA (2011) Phytochemical investigations and antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against pathogenic bacteria. J Appl Pharm Sci 1(5):124–128Google Scholar
  57. Jiang J, Xu Q (2003) Immunomodulatory activity of the aqueous extract from rhizome of Smilax glabra in the later phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 85(1):53–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Johnson PL (2002) Pocket guide to herbal remedies. Blackwell Science Ltd., OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Joseph B, Raj SJ (2011) An overview- Ficus benghalensis Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 6(1):21–24Google Scholar
  60. Joshph B, Raj SJ (2010) Pharmacognostic and pharmacology properties of Aloe vera. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 4(2):106–109Google Scholar
  61. Karnati M (2013) Arthritic activity of root bark of Oroxylum indicum (L) vent against adjuvant induced arthritis. Pharm Res 5(2):121–128Google Scholar
  62. Khan I (2009) Anti-inflammatory activities of Sieboldogenin from Smilax china Linn: experimental and computational studies. Ethnopharmacol Comm 121:175–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim KN (2013) Anti-inflammatory effect of essential oil and its constituents from fingered citron (Citrus medica L. var sarcodactylis) through blocking JNK, ERK and NF-kB signalling pathways in LPS-activated RAW 2647 cells. Food Chem Toxicol 57:126–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1933) Indian medicinal plants, 2nd edn. Bishen Singh, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  65. Kleinau S, Erlandsson H (1991) Adjuvant oils induce arthritis in the DA rat I. Characterization of the disease and evidence for an immunological involvement. J Autoimmune 4:871–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kohli K, Ali J, Ansari MJ, Raheman Z (2005) Curcumin: a natural anti-inflammatory agent. Indian J Pharmacol 37(3):141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB (2007) Text book of pharmacognosy, 39th edn. Nirali Prakashan, PuneGoogle Scholar
  68. Kore KJ, Shete RV (2011) Anti-arthritic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Lawsonia inermis against adjuvant arthritis. Int J Drug Dev Res 3(4):217–224Google Scholar
  69. Kumar VL, Roy S (2007) Calotropis procera latex extract affords protection against inflammation and oxidative stress in Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in rats. Mediat Inflamm 2007:47523Google Scholar
  70. Kumbhar CM (2014) Prophylactic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. leaves in CFA and formaldehyde induced arthritic rats. Asian J Pharm Res Dev 2(1):52–59Google Scholar
  71. Kuras M, Radoslaw P, Julita N, Alicja Z, Krzysztof B, Justyna A, Krzysztof G (2009) Effect of alkaloid-free and alkaloid-rich preparations from Uncaria tomentosa bark on mitotic activity and chromosome morphology evaluated by Allium test. J Ethnopharmacol 121:140–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Laughton MJ (1991) Inhibition of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase by flavonoids and phenolic dietary additives relationship to antioxidant activity and to iron ion-reducing ability. Biochem Pharmacol 42:1673–1681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee MS (2011) Quercetin is increased in heat-processed Cuscuta campestris seeds, which enhances the seed’s anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Process Biochem 46:2248–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee J, Kim S, Kim T (2004) Anti-inflammatory effect of Bee venom on type II collagen-induced arthritis. Am J Chin Med 32(3):361–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lemke TL, Williams DA (2008) Foye’s principles of medicinal chemistry, 6th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  76. Lewis A, Levy A (2011) Anti-inflammatory activities of Cassia alata leaf extract in complete Freund’s adjuvant arthritis in rats. West Indian Med J 60:615–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Li HL (2005) Regulatory effects of emodin on NF-kB activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 2647 macrophages. Int J Mol Med 16:41–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lu-Ping Q, Hong Z (2013) Inhibitory effect of the root extract of Litsea cubeba (lourI) pers. on adjuvant arthritis in rat. J Ethnopharmacol 147:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maheshwar GH, Deshpande SV, Pramod HJ (2010) Anticonvulsant activity of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. against MES and PTZ induced seizures in rats. J Herb Med Toxicol 4(2):123–126Google Scholar
  80. Majithia V, Geraci SA (2007) Rheumatoid arthritis: diagnosis and management. Am J Med 120(11):936–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mamatha GC, Prabhakar T, Madhuri V, Neelima T, Venkatanagaraju E, Chandrasekar SB (2014) Antiarthritic activity of euphorbia thymifolia Linn. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(2):1323–1331Google Scholar
  82. Manocha N, Samanta KC, Sharma V (2011) Evaluation of anti-rheumatic activity of extract of stem bark of Ficus benghalensis. J Global Pharma Technol 3(3):31–37Google Scholar
  83. Maridass M (2010) Survey of phytochemical diversity of secondary metabolism in selected wild medicinal plants. Ethnobot Leaflets 1(4):616–625Google Scholar
  84. Mayo JL (1998) Facog Black Cohosh and Chaste berry: herbs valued by women for centuries. Clin Nutr Insights 6(15):1–3Google Scholar
  85. Menichini F, Tundis R, Bonesi M, de Cindio B, Loizzo MR, Conforti F, Statti GA, Menabeni R, Bettini R (2011) Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Nat Prod Res 25(8):789–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palajon J (2009) Steroidal Lactones from Withania Somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicines. Molecules 14:2373–2393PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mossa JS, Tariq M, Mohsin A, Ageel AM, Yahya AI, Said AI, Rafatullah S (1991) Pharmacological studies on aerial parts of Calotropis procera. Am J Chin Med XIX(3–4):223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mota KS, Pita J, Estevam E, Medeiros V, Tavares J, Agra M, Batist L (2008) Evaluation of the toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity of the ethanol extract of Maytenus obtusifolia Mart. leaves. Braz J Pharmac 18(3):441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Murakami A (2000) Inhibitory effect of citrus nobiletin on phorbol ester-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress and tumor promotion in mice. Cancer Res 60:5059–5066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Murti K, Mayank A, Panchal VL (2010) Pharmacological properties of Boerhaavia diffusa - a review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 5(2):107–110Google Scholar
  91. Nadagouda SG, Karigar AA, Sikarwar MS, Geetanjali SS (2010) Anti-inflammatory activity of Pongamia pinnata stem bark in rats. J Pharm Res 3(4):828–830Google Scholar
  92. Nair V (2011) Evaluation of the disease modifying activity of Colchicum luteum Baker in experimental arthritis. J Ethnopharmacol 133:303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nair V (2012) Investigation into the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Cochicum luteum Baker in experimental models. Inflammation 35:881–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nair V, Singh S, Gupta YK (2010) Anti-arthritic and disease modifying activity of Terminalia chebula Retz. experimental models. J Pharm Pharmacol 62(12):1801–1806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ogochukwu NA, Raymond IO, Stephen O (2009) Effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana Mill. (Lauraceae) on the blood pressure of Sprague-Dawley rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 3(10):485–490Google Scholar
  96. Oliva P (2002) The anti-nociceptive effect of tramadol in the formalin test is mediated by the serotonergic component. Eur J Pharmacol 445:179–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Palumbo C (2009) Influence of fertinin on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats I: role in preventing osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab 27:538–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Paola RD (2008) Autoimmunity of animal model of arthritis. Autoimmun Rev 8:73–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Park EK (2006) Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. J Ethnopharmacol 108:142–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patil VV, Patil VR (2010) Ficus benghalensis Linn. - an overview. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2:1–11Google Scholar
  101. Patil KR, Patil CR, Jadhav RB, Mahajan VK, Raosaheb P, Gaikwad PS (2011) Anti-arthritic activity of bartogenic acid isolated from fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011:785245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Patwardhan SK, Bodas KS, Gundewar SS (2010) Coping with arthritis using safer herbal options. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2(1):6–7Google Scholar
  103. Paval J, Kaitheri SK, Potu BK, Govindan S, Kumar RS (2009a) Anti-arthritic potential of the plant Justicia gendarussa Burm F. Clinics 64(4):357–362PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Paval J, Kaitheri SK, Potu BK, Govindan S, Kumar RS, Narayanan SN, Moorkoth S (2009b) Comparing the anti-arthritic activities of the plants Justicia gendarussa Burm F. and Withania somnifera Linn. Int J Green Pharm 3(4):281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Paval J, Kaitheri SK, Kumar A, Govindan S, Mohammed CA, Kumar RS (2011) Anti-arthritic activity of the plant Tinospora cordifolia Willd. J Herb Med Toxicol 5(1):11–16Google Scholar
  106. Peng C (2012) Anti-inflammatory effects of Clematis chinensis Osbeck extract (AR-6) may be associated with NF-kB, TNF-a and COX-2 in collagen induced arthritis in rat. Rheumatol Int 32:3119–3125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Perez-Amador MC, Ocotero BR, Jimenez FG (2010) Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae). Int J Exp Bot 79:77–80Google Scholar
  108. Prashikanti G (2014) Anti arthritic activity of ethanolic extract from the leaves of commiphora caudata Linn in complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci 2(1):42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Raghavendra R, Mahadevan GD (2011) In vitro antimicrobial activity of various plant latex against resistant human pathogens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(4):70–72Google Scholar
  110. Rehman R, Akram M, Akhtar N, Jabeen Q, Saeed T, SS A (2011) Zingiber officinale Roscoe (pharmacological activity). J Med Plants Res 5(3):344–348Google Scholar
  111. Salazar A, Santa MJ, Zimic C, Salinas I, Sanchez L, Arrambide J, Benjamin C (2006) Evaluation of anti-nociceptive effect of chchuhuasi methanolic extract in a model of visceral pain in mice. Horiz Med J 6(2):135–140Google Scholar
  112. Salazar A, Gemez J, Paravic T (2008) Evaluation of the hypotensive activity of Maytenus Krukovii (Chuchuhuasi) in conscious rat. Horiz Med J 8(2):41–47Google Scholar
  113. Sandhar HK, Kaur M, Kumar B, Prasher S (2011) An update on Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn. Int Pharmaceuticasciencia 1(1):77–86Google Scholar
  114. Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Zhang XJ, Condezo LA, Lao J, Angeles FM, Miller MJ (2002) Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guinensis) are independent of their alkaloid content. Phytomedicine 9:325–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sangwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA (2010) A review on Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre: a great versatile leguminous plant. Nat Sci 8(11):130–139Google Scholar
  116. Sautour M, Miyamoto T, Lacaille-Duboi MA (2006) Bioactive steroidal saponins from Smilax medica. Planta Med 72(7):667–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schett G (2000) Activation, differential localization, and regulation of the stress-activated protein kinases, extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase, c-JUN N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, in synovial tissue and cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 43:2501–2512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shahverdi AR (2006) Two matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors from Ferula persica var persica. Phytomedicine 13:712–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shao B, Guo H, Cui Y, Ye M, Han J, Guo DS (2007) Steroidal saponins from Smilax china and their anti-inflammatory activities. Phytochemistry 68(5):623–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shin HY (2003) Jeong-tang inhibits the stem cell factor-induced migration and inflammatory cytokines secretion in mast cells. J Ethnopharmacol 85:157–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Singh SS, Pandey SC, Srivastava S, Gupta VS, Patro B, Ghosh AC (2003) Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia. Indian J Pharmacol 35:83–91Google Scholar
  122. Singh A, Malhotra S, Subban R (2008) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from Indian medicinal plants. Int J Integr Biol 3(1):57–72Google Scholar
  123. Singh A, Duggal S, Singh J, Katekhaye S (2010) An inside preview of ethnopharmacology of cissampelos pareira Linn. Int J Biol Technol 1(1):114–120Google Scholar
  124. Subramanai J, Damodaran A, Kanniappan M, Mathuram LN (2009) Anti-inflammatory effect of petroleum ether extract of Vitex negundo leaves in rat models of acute and subacute inflammation. Pharm Biol 47(4):335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sumantran VN, Joshi AK, Boddul S, Koppikar SJ, Warude D, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Chandwaskar R, Wagh UV (2011) Antiarthritic activity of a standardized, multiherbal, Ayurvedic formulation containing Boswellia serrata: in vitro studies on knee cartilage from osteoarthritis patients. Phytother Res 25(9):1375–1380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sun HY, Long LJ, Wu J (2006) Chemical constituents of mangrove plant Barringtonia racemosa. J Chin Med Mater 29(7):671–672Google Scholar
  127. Suresh V (2011) In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflex Roxb. J Ethnopharmacol 134:872–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Talwar S, Nandakumar K, Nayak PG, Bansal P, Mudgal J, Mor V (2011) Anti-inflammatory activity of Terminalia paniculata bark extract against acute and chronic inflammation in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 134(2):323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tirkey R, Tiwari P (2012) Effect of Cocculus hirsutus leaves extract on Freund’s complete adjuvant and formaldehyde induced arthritis. Int Res J Pharm 3(2):267–270Google Scholar
  130. Tripathy S, Pradhan D, Anjana M (2010) Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic potential of Ammania baccifera Linn. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 1(3):1–7Google Scholar
  131. Takauji Y, Miki K, Mita J, Hossain MN, Yamauchi M, Kioi M, Ayusawa D, Fujii M (2016) Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. J Biosci 41(4):569–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Umar S (2012) Modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine response by thymoquinone in the collagen induced arthritis in Wistar rats. Chem Biol Interact 197:40–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vaidya AD (2006) Reverse pharmacological correlates of ayurvedic drug action. Indian J Pharmacol 38(5):311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Vaillancourt F (2011) Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of thymoquinone against rheumatoid arthritis. J Cell Biochem 112:107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vishwanathan S, Basavaraju R (2010) A review on vitex negundo L. - a medicinally important plant. Eur J Biol Sci 3(1):30–42Google Scholar
  136. Wen XY (2008) The effects of Radix Clematidis liposome on knee joints in osteoarthritis rabbits. J Tradit Chin Orthoped Trauma 10:19–21Google Scholar
  137. Wilder RL (1988) Streptococcal cell-wall-induced arthritis in rats: an overview. Int J Tissue React 10:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wilder RL (1999) Genetic factors regulating experimental arthritis in mice and rats. Curr Dir Autoimmun 1:121–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Williams JE (2001) Review of anti-viral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado. Altern Med Rev 6(6):567–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Yadav RD, Jain SK, Alok S, Prajapati SK, Verma A (2011) Pongamia pinnata: an overview. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2(3):494–500Google Scholar
  141. Yasir M, Das S, Kharya MD (2010) The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill. Pharmacogn Rev 4(7):77–84PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Yesilada E, Kupeli E (2007) Clematis vitalba L aerial part exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-pyretic effect. J Ethnopharmacol 110:504–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yin W (2003) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of brucine and brucine N-oxide extracted from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica. J Ethnopharmacol 88:205–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zakeri Z, Izadi S, Bari Z, Soltani F, Narouie B, Rad MG (2011) Evaluating the effects of ginger extract on knee pain, stiffness and difficulty in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Med Plants Res 5(15):3375–3379Google Scholar
  145. Zhang CF (2014) Antioxidant effects of Genkwa flos Linn flavonoids on Freund’s adjuvant- induced rheumatoid arthritis rats. J Ethnopharmacol 153:793–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Znati M (2014a) Chemical composition, biological and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts and compounds isolated from Ferula lutea. Molecules 19:16959–16975PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Znati M (2014b) Chemical composition, biological and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts and compounds isolated from Ferula lutea. Molecules 19:2733–2747PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shakir Saleem
    • 1
    • 2
  • Riqaiyah Khan
    • 2
  • Imran Kazmi
    • 1
  • Muhammad Afzal
    • 3
  1. 1.Glocal School of PharmacyGlocal UniversityMirzapur Pole, Dist -SaharanpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologySiddhartha Institute of PharmacyDehradunIndia
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyCollege of Pharmacy, Jouf UniveristySakakaSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations