Advertisement

Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Licorice: A Review

  • Nazim A. MamedovEmail author
  • Dilfuza Egamberdieva
Chapter

Abstract

Licorice (or “liquorice”) is one of most widely used in foods, herbal medicine, and extensively researched medicinal plants of the world. In traditional medicine licorice roots have been used against treating many ailments including lung diseases, arthritis, kidney diseases, eczema, heart diseases, gastric ulcer, low blood pressure, allergies, liver toxicity, and certain microbial infections. Licorice extract contains sugars, starch, bitters, resins, essential oils, tannins, inorganic salts, and low levels of nitrogenous constituents such as proteins, individual amino acids, and nucleic acids. A large number of biological active compounds have been isolated from Glycyrrhiza species, where triterpene saponins and flavonoids are the main constitutes which show broad biological activity. This review examines recent studies on the phytochemical and pharmacological data and describes some side effects and toxicity of licorice and its bioactive components.

Keywords

Licorice Glycyrrhiza Traditional medicine Phytochemical constituents 

References

  1. Adel M, Alousi LA, Salem HA (2005) Licorice: a possible anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer drug. AAPS PharmSciTech 6:74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhtar N, Khan MS, Iqbal A, Khan BA, Bashir S (2011) Glycyrrhiza glabra extract cream: effect on skin pigment melanin. In: Proceeding book of international conference on bioscience, biochemistry and bioinformatics IPCBEE. IACSIT Press, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali EM (2013) Phytochemical composition, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oils. J Med Plants Res 7(29):2197–2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, Ali BH, El Mougy SA (2002) Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and the adrenal-kidney-pituitary axis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 40(10):1525–1527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Razzuqi RAM, Al-Jawad FH, Al-Hussaini JA, Al-Jeboori AA (2012) Hepatoprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra in carbon tetrachloride-induced model of acute liver injury. J Phys Pharm Adv 2(7):259–263Google Scholar
  6. Ambawade S, Kasture VS, Kasturi SB (2001) Anxiolytic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. J Nat Remedies 2:130–134Google Scholar
  7. Amirova GS (1993) Licorice in Azerbaijan (in Russian). Elm, Baku 104 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Anon (2005) Glycyrrhiza glabra. Altern Med Rev 10:230–237Google Scholar
  9. Armanini D, Fiore C, Mattarello MJ, Bielenberg J, Palermo M (2002) History of the endocrine effects of licorice. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 110:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asgary S, Jafari Dinani N, Madani H, Mahzoni P, Nader G (2007) Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on aorta wall atherosclerotic lesion in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Pak J Nutr 6(4):313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Asl MN, Hosseinzadeh H (2008) Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds. Phytother Res 22:709–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennett A, Clark-Wibberley T, Stamford IF, Wright JE (1980) Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats: cimetidine and deglycyrrhizinated liquorice together give greater protection than low doses of either drug alone. J Pharm Pharmacol 32:151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biondi DM, Rocco C, Ruberto G (2005) Dihydrostilbene derivatives from Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves. J Nat Prod 68:1099–1102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J (2000) Herbal medicine: expanded commission E monographs. Integrative Medicine Communications, Newton, MAGoogle Scholar
  15. Brinker F (1997) Herb contradictions and drug interactions. Eclectic Medical Publications, Sandy, Portland, ORGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown K (1995) Medicinal plants, indigenous medicine and conservation of biodiversity in Ghana. In: Swanson T (ed) Intellectual property rights and biodiversity conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 201–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke HA (2004) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 74:2157–2184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chakravarthi KK, Vadhani RA, Narayan RS (2012) Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on learning and memory in wistar albino rats. Int J Biol Med Res 3(3):2059–2064Google Scholar
  19. Chen F, Chan KH, Jiang Y, Kao RYT, Lu HT, Fan KW, Cheng VCC, Tsui WHW, Hung IFN, Lee TSW, Guan Y, Peiris JSM, Yuen KY (2004) In vitro susceptibility of 10 clinical isolates of SARS coronavirus to selected antiviral compounds. J Clin Virol 31:69–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chevallier A (1996) Encyclopedia of medicinal plants. Dorling Kindersley Pty Limited, St LeonardsGoogle Scholar
  21. Chin YW, Jung HA, Liu Y, Su BN, John A, Castoro WJ, Keller MA, Douglas K (2007) Anti oxidant constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). J Agric Food Chem 55(1):4691–4696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Christensen SB, Kharazmi A (2001) Antimalarial natural products. In: Tringali C (ed) Bioactive compounds from natural sources: isolation, characterization and biological properties. Taylor & Francis, New York, pp 379–432Google Scholar
  23. Cinati J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Chandra P, Rabenau H, Doerr HW (2003) Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet 361:2045–2046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crance JM, Biziagos E, Passagot J, Van Cuyuck-Gandré H, Deloince DR (1990) Inhibition of hepatitis A virus replication in vitro by antiviral compounds. J Med Virol 31:155–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crance JM, Scaramozzino N, Jouan A, Garin D (2003) Interferon, ribavirin, 6-azarridine and glycyrrhizin: antiviral compounds active against pathogenic flaviviruses. Antiviral Res 58:73–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Curreli F, Friedman K, Alvin E, Flore O (2007) Protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 30(10):1898–1904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Da Nagao Y, Sata M, Suzuki H, Tanikawa K, Itoh K, Kameyama T (1996) Effectiveness of glycyrrhizin for oral lichen planus in patients with chronic HCV infection. J Gastroenterol 31:691–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis EA, Morris DJ (1991) Medicinal uses of licorice through the millennia: the good and plenty of it. Mol Cell Endocrinol 78:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeSmet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF (1997) Adverse effects of herbal drugs, vol 2–3. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dhingra D, Sharma A (2005) Evaluation of antidepressant-like activity of glycyrrhizin in mice. Indian J Pharmacol 37:390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dhingra D, Sharma A (2006) Antidepressant-like activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in mouse models of immobility tests. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:449–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dong S, Inoue A, Zhu Y, Tanji M, Kiyama R (2007) Activation of rapid signaling pathways and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of breast cancer MCF-7 by the treatment with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root. Food Chem Toxicol 45:2470–2478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fatima A, Gupt VK, Luqman S, Negi AS, Kumar JK, Shanker K, Saikia D, Srivastava S, Darokar MP, Khanuja SPS (2009) Antifungal activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts and its constituent glabridin. Phytother Res 23:1990–1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fenwick GR, Lutomski J, Nieman C (1990) Liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. composition, uses and analysis. Food Chem 38:119–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Ragazzi E, Zanchin G, Armanini D (2005) A history of the therapeutic use of liquorice in Europe. J Ethnopharmacol 99:317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, Ragazzi E, Pellati D, Armanini D, Bielenberg J (2009) Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species. Am J Chin Med 37(2):383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Firn R (2010) Nature’s chemicals: the natural products that shaped our world. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 74–75Google Scholar
  38. Franceschelli S, Pesce M, Vinciguerra I, Ferrone A, Riccioni G, Patruno A, Grilli A, Felaco M, Speranza L (2011) Licocalchone-C extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma inflammation by improving antioxidant conditions and regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Molecules 16:5720–5734PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fuhrman B, Volkova N, Kaplan M, Presser D, Attias J, Hayek T, Aviram M (2002) Antiatherosclerotic effect of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholestrolomic patients. Nutr., 18:268–273Google Scholar
  40. Fujisawa Y, Sakamoto M, Matsushita M, Fujita T, Nishioka K (2000) Glycyrrhizin inhibits the lytic pathway of complement—possible mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect on liver cells in viral hepatitis. Microbiol Immunol 44(9):799–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fukai T, Cai BS, Maruno K, Miyakawa Y, Konishi M, Nomura T (1998) An isoprenylated flavanone from Glycyrrhiza glabra and rec-assay of licorice phenols. Phytochemistry 49(7):2005–2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fukai T, Ali M, Kaitou K, Kanda T, Terada S, Nomura T (2002) Anti-Helicobacter pylori flavonoids from licorice extract. Life Sci 71:1449–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Furuhashi I, Iwata S, Shibata S, Sato T, Inoue H (2005) Inhibition by licochalcone A, a novel flavonoid isolated from liquorice root, of IL-1β-induced PGE2 production in human skin fibroblasts. J Pharm Pharmacol 57:1661–1666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gareri P, Condorelli D, Belluardo N, Russo E, Loiacono A, Barresi V, Trovato-Salinaro A, Mirone MB, Ferreri Ibbadu G, De Sarro G (2004) Anticonvulsant effects of carbenoxolone in genetically epilepsy prone rats (GEPRs). Neuropharmacology 47(8):1205–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gupta VK, Fatima A, Faridi U, Negi AS, Shanker K, Kumar JK, Rahuja N, Luqman S, Sisodia BS, Saikia DS, Darokar MP, Khanuja SPS (2008) Antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. J Ethnopharmacol 116:377–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hatano T, Takagi M, Ito H, Yoshida T (1998) Acylated flavonoid glycosides and accompanying phenolics from licorice. Phytochemistry 47:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hatano T, Shintani Y, Aga Y, Shiota S, Tsuchiya T, Yoshida T (2000) Phenolic constituents of licorice. VIII. Structures of glicophenone and glicoisoflavanone, and effects of licorice phenolics on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chem Pharm Bull 48:1286–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hattori T, Ikematsu S, Koito A, Matsushita S, Maeda Y, Hada M, Fujimaki M, Takatsuki K (1989) Preliminary evidence for inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on HIV replication in patients with AIDS. Antiviral Res 11:255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hayash H, Hattori S, Inoue K, Khodzhimatov O, Ashurmetov O, Ito M, Honda G (2003) Field survey of Glycyrrhiza plants in Central Asia: chemical characterization of G. glabra collected in Uzbekistan. Chem Pharm Bull 51(11):1338–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Herz W, Kirby GW, Moore RE, Steglich W, Tamm C (1998) Fortschritte der Chemie Organischer Naturstoffe, vol 73. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Hesham RE, Shgeru N (2002) Chemistry of bioflavonoids. Indian J Pharm Educ 36:191–194Google Scholar
  52. Hoffman D (2000) Easy breathing: natural treatments for asthma, colds, flu, coughs, allergies, sinusitis. Storey Books, Pownal, VTGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoffmann D (1990) The new holistic herbal, 2nd edn. Element, ShaftesburyGoogle Scholar
  54. Hojo H, Sato J (2002) Antifungal activity of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and potential applications in beverage. Foods Food Ingred J 203:27–33Google Scholar
  55. Hong ND, Koo BH, Joo SM, Lee SK (1988) Studies on the efficacy of combined preparation of crude drugs. Effects of sipmidojuksan on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Korean J Pharmacol 19(2):141Google Scholar
  56. Hossain MS, Hossain MA, Islam R, Alam AH, Zahan K, Sarkar S, Farooque MA (2004) Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 2-aminobenzoic acid and 2-aminophenol and their coordination complexes with magnesium (Mg-II). Pak J Biol Sci 7:25–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hsu YL, Kuo PL, Chiang LC, Lin CC (2004) Isoliquiritigenin inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 31(7):414–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Huang M, Wang W, Wei S (2010) Investigation on medicinal plant resources of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in China and chemical assessment of its underground part. J Nat Med 63(2):137–146Google Scholar
  59. Huxley A (1992) Dictionary of gardening. Stockton Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Isbrucker RA, Burdock GA (2006) Risk and safety assessment on the consumption of licorice root (Glycyrrhiza sp.), its extract and powder as a food ingredient, with emphasis on the pharmacology and toxicology of glycyrrhizin. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 46:167–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jeong HG, You HJ, Park SJ, Moon AR, Chung YC, Kang SK, Chun HK (2002) Hepatoprotective effects of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury: inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression. Pharm Res 46:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jo EH, Kim SH, Ra JC, Kim SR, Cho SD, Jung JW, Yang SR, Park JS, Hwang JW, Aruoma OI, Kim TY, Lee YS, Kang KS (2005) Chemopreventive properties of the ethanol extract of Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) root: induction of apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett 230:239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kakegawa H, Matsumoto H, Satoh T (1992) Inhibitory effects of some natural products on the activation of hyaluronidase and their anti-allergic actions. Chem Pharm Bull 40:1439–1442PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kanazawa M, Satomi Y, Mizutani Y, Ukimura O, Kawauchi A, Sakai T, Baba M, Okuyama T, Nishino H, Miki T (2003) Isoliquiritigenin inhibits the growth of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 43(5):580–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kang JS, Yoon YD, Cho IJ, Han MH, Lee CW, Park SK, Kim HM (2005) Glabridin, an isoflavan from licorice root, inhibits inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression and improves survival of mice in experimental model of septic shock. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 312(3):1187–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kar A (2007) Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology. New Age International Ltd Publishers, New Delhi, pp 332–600Google Scholar
  67. Khalaf I, Vlase L, Lazăr D, Corciovă A, Ivãnescu B, Lazăr MI (2010) Hplc-Ms study of phytoestrogens from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Farmacia 58(1):89–94Google Scholar
  68. Kinoshita T, Tamura Y, Mizutani K (2005) The isolation and structure elucidation of minor isoflavonoids from licorice of Glycyrrhiza glabra origin. Chem Pharm Bull 53:847–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kong ND, Chang IK, Lee SI, Kim NJ (1984) Studies on the efficacy of combined preparation of crude drugs: effects of “Bojungikgi-tang” on the digestive system, blood pressure and diuretic actions. Korean J Pharmacog 15(3):121–127Google Scholar
  70. Kroes BH, Beukelman CJ, van den Berg AJ, Wolbink GJ, van Dijk H, Labadie RP (1997) Inhibition of human complement by beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Immunology 90(1):115–120PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kuo KK, Chang JS, Wang KC, Chiang LC (2009) Water extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis inhibited enterovirus 71 in a human foreskin fibroblast cell line. Am J Chin Med 37(2):383–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lateef M, Iqba L, Fatima N, Siddiqui K, Afza N, Zia-ul-Haq M, Ahmad M (2012) Evaluation of antioxidant and urease inhibition activities of roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Pak J Pharm Sci 25:99–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee KT, Kim BJ, Kim HJ, Heo MY, Kim HP (1997) Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (I): inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and DOPA auto-oxidation. Int J Cosmet Sci 19:291–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee J, Jung E, Park J, Jung K, Park J, Kim J, Hong S, Park J, Park S, Lee S, Park D (2005) Glycyrrhizin induces melanogenesis by elevating a camp level in b16 melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol 124:405–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Li W, Asada Y, Yoshikawa T (2000) Flavonoid constituents from Glycyrrhiza glabra hairy root cultures. Phytochemistry 55:447–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu W, Kato M, Akhand A, Hayakawa A, Takemura M, Yoshida S, Suzuki H, Nakashima I (1998) The herbal medicine Sho-saiko-to inhibits the growth of malignant melanoma cells by up-regulating Fas mediated apoptosis and arresting cell cycle through down regulation of cyclin dependent kinases. Int J Oncol 12:1321–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lou ZC, Qin B (1995) Species systematization and quality evaluation of commonly used Chinese traditional drugs. North ed, vol 1–3. Beijing Medical University Press and Peking Union Medical College Press, Beijing, p 19Google Scholar
  78. Lucas (1976) Nature’s medicines. Melvin Powers, Wilshire Book Company, Hollywood, CAGoogle Scholar
  79. Ma CJ, Li GS, Zhang DL, Liu K, Fan X (2005) One step isolation and purification of liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Risch. using high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr 1078:188–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Madziga HA, Sanni S, Sandabe UK (2010) Phytochemical and elemental analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana leaf. J Am Sci 6(11):510–514Google Scholar
  81. Manfredi KP, Vallurupalli V, Demidova M, Kindscher K, Pannell LK (2001) Isolation of an anti-HIV diprenylated bibenzyl from Glycyrrhiza lepidota. Phytochemistry 58:153–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martinez MJA, Lazaro RM, del Olmo LMB, Benito PB (2008) Anti-infectious activity in the Anthemideae tribe. Stud Nat Prod Chem 35:445–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Masoomeh MJ, Kiarash G (2007) In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to licorice extract. Iran J Pharm Res 6:69–72Google Scholar
  84. Matsui S, Matsumoto H, Sonoda Y, Ando K, Aizu-Yokota E, Sato T, Kasahara T (2004) Glycyrrhizin and related compounds down-regulate production of inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and eotaxin 1 in a human lung fibroblast cell line. Int Immunopharmacol 4(13):1633–1644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Maurya R, Singh G, Yadav PP (2008) Antiosteoporotic agents from natural sources. Stud Nat Prod Chem 35:517–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A (1997) Botanical safety handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  87. Meghashri SG (2009) In vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra. J Appl Sci Res 5:1436–1439Google Scholar
  88. Mills SY, Bone K (2000) Principles and practice of phytotherapy: modern herbal medicine. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Mishra NK, Bstia S, Mishra G, Chowdary KA, Patra S (2011) Anti-arthritic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Boswellia serrata and their synergistic activity in combined formulation studied in Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritic rats. J Pharm Educ Res 2:92–98Google Scholar
  90. Muralidharan P, Balamurugan G, Babu V (2009) Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract on hypoxic rats. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 4:60–64Google Scholar
  91. Näf R, Jaquier A (2006) New lactones in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Flavour Fragr J 21:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nand P, Drabu S, Gupta R (2012) Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of medicinal plants for the treatment of acne. Indian J Nat Prod Res 3(1):28–32Google Scholar
  93. Nerya O, Vaya J, Musa R, Izrael S, Ben-Arie R, Tamir S (2003) Glabrene and isoliquiritigenin as tyrosinase inhibitors from liquorice roots. J Agric Food Chem 51(5):1201–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nitalikar MM, Munde KC, Dhore BV, Shikalgar SN (2010) Studies of antibacterial activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. Int J PharmTech Res 2(1):899–901Google Scholar
  95. Nomura T, Fukai T (1998) Phenolic constituents of licorice (Glycyrrhiza species). In: Herz W, Kirby GW, Moore RE, Steglich W, Ch T (eds) Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Springer, Wien, pp 1–140Google Scholar
  96. Nomura T, Fukai T, Akiyama T (2002) Chemistry of phenolic compounds of licorice (Glycyrrhiza species) and their estrogenic and cytotoxic activities. Pure Appl Chem 74(7):1199–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Olukoga A, Donaldson D (2000) Liquorice and its health implications. J R Soc Promot Health 120:83–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Orlent H, Hansen BE, Willems M, Brouwer JT, Huber R, Kullak-Ublick GA, Gerken G, Zeuzem S, Nevens F, Tielemans WSM, Zondervan PE, Lagging M, Westin J, Schalme SM (2006) Biochemical and histological effects of 26 weeks of glycyrrhizin treatment in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized phase II trial. J Hepatol 45(4):539–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Öztürk M, Altay V, Hakem KR, Akçiçek E (2017) Liquorice—from botany to phytochemistry, Springer briefs in plant sciences. Springer Nature, Basel, 139 pp.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74240-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patil SM, Patil MB, Sapkale GN (2009) Antimicrobial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Roots. Int J Chem Sci 7(1):585–591Google Scholar
  101. Pellatti D, Fiore C, Armanini D, Rassu M, Bertoloni G (2009) In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on the growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Phytother Res 23:572–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Plyasunova OA, Egoricheva IN, Fedyuk NV, Pokrovsky AG, Baltina LA, Murinov YI, Tolstikov GA (1992) Antiviral activity of licorice. Voprosy Virusologii 37:235–238Google Scholar
  103. Puupponen-Pimiä R, Nohynek L, Meier C, Kähkönen M, Heinonen M, Hopia A, Oksman-Caldentey KM (2001) Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries. J Appl Microbiol 90:494–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Qiao X, Liu CF, Ji S, Lin XH, Guo DA, Ye M (2014) Simultaneous determination of five minor coumarins and flavonoids in Glycyrrhiza uralensis by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Planta Med 80(2-3):237–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rahman MS, Rashid MA (2008) Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Eclipta prostrata. Oriental Pharm Exp Med 8:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ram A, Mabalirajan U, Das M, Bhattacharya I, Dinda AK, Gangal SV, Ghosh B (2006) Glycyrrhizin alleviates experimental allergic asthma in mice. Int Immunopharm 6(9):1468–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Reid D (2001) A handbook of Chinese healing herbs. Periplus, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  108. Salvi M, Fiore C, Armanini D, Toninello A (2003) Glycyrrhetinic acid-induced permeability transition in rat liver mitochondria. Biochem Pharmacol 66:2375–2379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sarker SD, Nahar L (2007) Chemistry for pharmacy students: general, organic and natural product chemistry. Wiley, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Satomi Y, Nishino H, Shibata S (2005) Glycyrrhetinic acid and related compounds induce G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2. Anticancer Res 25(6):4043–4047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Saxena S (2005) Glycyrrhiza glabra: medicine over the millennium. Nat Prod Radiance 4(5):358–367Google Scholar
  112. Schulz V, Hänsel R, Tyler VE (1998) Rational phytotherapy. A physicians’ guide to herbal medicine. Springer, Berlin, pp 160–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sharma V, Agrawal RC (2013) Glycyrrhiza glabra-a plant for the future. J. Pharm Med Scien 2(3):15–20Google Scholar
  114. Sharma V, Agrawal RC, Pandey S (2013) Phytochemical screening and determination of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts. J Environ Res Dev 7(4):1552–1558Google Scholar
  115. Sheehan MP, Atherton DJ (1992) A controlled trial of traditional Chinese medicinal plants in widespread non-exudative atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 126(2):179–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sheela ML, Ramakrishna MK, Salimath BP (2006) Angiogenic and proliferative effects of the cytokine VEGF in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is inhibited by Glycyrrhiza glabra. Int Immunopharmacol 6:494–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shin EM, Zhou HY, Guo LY, Kim JA, Lee SH, Merfort I, Kang SS, Kim SM, Kim S, Kim YS (2008) Anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrol isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol 8:1524–1532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shinwari ZK, Khan I, Naz S, Hussain A (2009) Assessment of antibacterial activity of three plants used in Pakistan to cure respiratory diseases. Afr J Biotechnol 8(24):7082–7086Google Scholar
  119. Shiota G, Harada K, Ishida M, Tomie Y, Okubo M, Katayama S, Ito H, Kawasaki H (1999) Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma by glycyrrhizin in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice. Carcinogenesis 20:59–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shirinyan E, Panosyan A, Barikyan M, Avakyan O (1988) New antistressor compounds from licorice. Izv Akad Nauk USSR 6:932–936 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  121. Singh M (2010) Comparative phytochemical and antioxidant study of aqueous extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra (mulethi) and Piper longum (long pepper). Int J Drug Res Technol 2:203–207Google Scholar
  122. Siracusa L, Saija A, Cristani M, Cimino F, D’Arrigo M, Trombetta D, Rao F, Ruberto G (2011) Phytocomplexes from liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) leaves—chemical characterization and evaluation of their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity. Fitoterapia 82(4):546–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sitohy MZ, El-Massry RA, El-Saadany SS, Labib SM (1991) Metabolic effect of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on lipid distribution pattern, liver and renal functions of albino rats. Nahrung 35:799–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Škrovánková S, Mišurcová L, Machů L (2012) Chapter 3—Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants. Adv Food Nutr Res 67:75–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sokolov S, Zamotayev I (1985) Directory of medicinal plants. Medicina, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  126. Statti GA, Tundis R, Sacchetti G, Muzzoli M, Bianchi A, Menichini F (2004) Variability in the content of active constituents and biological activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Fitoterapia 75:371–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Subramoniam A, Pushpangadan P (1999) Development of phytomedicines for liver diseases. Indian J Pharmacol 31:166–175Google Scholar
  128. Sultana S, Haque A, Hamid K, Urmi KF, Roy S (2010) Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Agric Biol J North Am 1(5):957–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tamir S, Eizenberg M, Somjen D, Stern N, Shelach R, Kaye A, Vaya J (2000) Estrogenic and antiproliferative properties of glabridin from licorice in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 60:5704–5709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Tanaka Y, Kikuzaki H, Fukuda S, Nakatani N (2001) Antibacterial compounds of licorice against upper airway respiratory tract pathogens. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 47:270–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tandon A, Tandon BN, Bhujwala RA (2002) Clinical spectrum of acute sporadic hepatitis E and possible benefit of glycyrrhizin therapy. Hepatol Res 23:55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tharkar PR, Tatiya AU, Shinde PR, Surana SJ, Patil UK (2010) Antifungal activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. by direct bioautography method. Int J Pharm Res 2:1547–1549Google Scholar
  133. Tokiwa T, Harada K, Matsumura T, Tukiyama T (2004) Oriental medicinal herb, Periploca sepium, extract inhibits growth and IL-6 production of human synovial fibroblast-like cells. Pharm Bull 27:1691–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Toshio F, Kazue S, Taro N (2003) Preliminary evaluation of anti nephritis and radical scavenging activities of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Fitotherapia 74:624–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tsuda T, Kubota K, Yasuda K, Nishikava S, Sugaya A, Sugaya E (1986) Effects of Chinese herbal medicine “Kanbalu-Taiso-To” on transmembrane ionic currents and its local anesthetic action. J Ethnopharmacol 17(3):257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Van Marle J, Aarsen PN, Lind A, van Weeren Kramer J (1981) Deglycyrrhizinised liquorice (DGL) and the renewal of rat stomach epithelium. Eur J Pharmacol 72:219–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Van Rossum TG, Vulto AG, Hop WC, Schalm SW (1999) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous glycyrrhizin after single and multiple doses in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Clin Ther 21:2080–2090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Van Rossum TG, Vulto AG, Hop WC, Schalm SW (2001) Glycyrrhizin-induced reduction of ALT in European patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 96:2432–2437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Varsha S, Agrawal RC, Sonam P (2013) Phytochemical screening and determination of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts. J Environ Res Dev 7(4):1552–1558Google Scholar
  140. Vashist H, Sharma D (2013) Pharmacognostical aspects of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 6(4):55–59Google Scholar
  141. Vaya J, Belinky PA, Aviram M (1997) Antioxidant constituents from licorice roots: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidative capacity toward LDL oxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 23:302–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Vaya J, Belinky PA, Aviram M (1998) Structural aspects of the inhibitory effect of glabridin on LDL oxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 24:1419–1429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vibha JB, Choudhary K, Singh M, Rathore MS, Shekhawat NS (2009) A Study on pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra: a miracle medicinal herb. Bot Res Int 2(3):157–163Google Scholar
  144. Wang ZY, Athar M, Bickers DR (2000) Licorice in foods and herbal drugs: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and uses. In: Mazza G, Oomah BD (eds) Herbs, botanicals and teas. Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA, pp 321–335Google Scholar
  145. Wang W, Hu X, Zhao Z, Liu P, Hu Y, Zhou J, Zhou D, Wang Z, Guo D, Guo H (2008) Antidepressant-like effects of liquiritin and isoliquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1179–1184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Weiss RF, Fintelmann V (2000) Herbal medicine. Georg Thieme Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  147. Williamson EM (2003) Potter’s cyclopedia of herbal medicine. C.W. Daniel, Saffron Walden, pp 269–271Google Scholar
  148. Won SR, Kim SK, Kim YM, Lee PH, Ryu JH, Kim JW, Rhee HI (2007) Licochalcone A: a lipase inhibitor from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Food Res Int 40:1046–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wu YT, Shen C, Yin J, Yu JP, Meng Q (2006) Azathioprine hepatotoxicity and the protective effect of liquorice and glycyrrhizic acid. Phytother Res 20(8):640–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Xing GX, Li N, Wang T, Yang MY (2003) Advances in studies on flavonoids of licorice. China J Chin Mater Med 28(7):593–597Google Scholar
  151. Yamamura Y, Kawakami J, Santa T, Kotaki H, Uchino K, Sawada Y, Tanaka N, Iga T (1992) Pharmacokinetic profile of glycyrrhizin in healthy volunteers by a new high-performance liquid chromatographic method. J Pharm Sci 81(10):1042–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Yoon G, Jung YD, Cheon SH (2005) Cytotoxic allylretrochalcone from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflate. Chem Pharm Bull 53:694–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zhang Q, Ye M (2009) Chemical analysis of the Chinese herbal medicine Gan-Cao (licorice). J Chromatogr 1216(11):1954–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zhao ZY, Wang WX, Guo HZ, Guan ZQ, Zhou DF (2006) Anti-depressive effect of liquiritin on chronic stress depression in rats. Chin J Clin Rehabil 27:69–72Google Scholar
  155. Zhu YP (1998) Chinese materia medica: chemistry, pharmacology and applications. Harwood Academic Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhu S, Sugiyama R, Batkhuu J, Sanchir C, Zou K, Komatsu K (2008) Survey of Glycyrrhizae Radix resources in Mongolia: chemical assessment of the underground part of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and comparison with Chinese Glycyrrhizae Radix. Phytother Res 22(2):141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medicinal Plants Program, Stockbridge School of AgricultureUniversity of Massachusetts at AmherstAmherstUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of Biology and Soil SciencesNational University of UzbekistanTashkentUzbekistan

Personalised recommendations