The Digitalization of Ambassadors
Technology has always influenced the role of ambassadors. The invention of the telegraph saw the migration of power from the ambassador to his nation’s capital, which could gather and disseminate information globally. Yet, as this chapter demonstrates, digitalization has empowered ambassadors who can now foster relations with digital publics and use digital platforms to gather information relevant to policy makers in capitals. To date, few studies have investigated how ambassadors utilize digital technologies. Therefore, this chapter evaluates the extent to which ambassadors contribute to the digital reach of their embassies and presents three case studies that illustrate how ambassadors use digital platforms to interact with digital publics. The chapter thus demonstrates that the digitalization of public diplomacy is in no way limited to younger diplomats.
- Bauman, Z., & Lyon, D. (2016). Liquid surveillance: A conversation. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Bjola, C. (2018). Digital diplomacy and impression management. Presentation. London: Canada House.Google Scholar
- Causey, C., & Howard, P. N. (2013). Delivering digital public diplomacy. In R. S. Zaharna, A. Arsenault, & A. Fisher (Eds.), Relational, networked and collaborative approaches to public diplomacy (pp. 144–156). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Copeland, D. (2013). Taking diplomacy public: Science, technology and foreign ministries in a heteropolar world. In R. S. Zaharna, A. Arsenault, & A. Fisher (Eds.), Relational, networked and collaborative approaches to public diplomacy (pp. 56–69). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Dowd, M. (2015, June). From Paris, with tough love. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/opinion/sunday/maureen-dowd-from-paris-with-tough-love.html.
- Friedman, T. (1990, June). Baker rebukes Israel on Peace Terms. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1990/06/14/world/baker-rebukes-israel-on-peace-terms.html.
- Lampe, G. (2018). Understanding US digital diplomacy [In person].Google Scholar
- Lutyens, A. (2018). Investigating New Zealand’s model of democratized public diplomacy [In person].Google Scholar
- Manor, I. (2014, April 2). Digital diplomacy—What is it good for [Blog]. Retrieved from https://digdipblog.com/2014/04/02/digital-diplomacy-what-is-it-good-for/.
- Manor, I. (2015, August 9). Developing best practices for ambassadors on Twitter [Blog]. Retrieved from https://digdipblog.com/2015/08/09/developing-best-practices-for-ambassadors-on-twitter/.
- Manor, I. (2017, March 23). How embassies managed the London terror attack [Blog]. Retrieved from https://digdipblog.com/2017/03/23/how-embassies-managed-the-london-terror-attack/.
- Manor, I., & Pamment J. (2019). Towards prestige mobility? Diplomatic prestige and digital diplomacy. Cambridge Review of International Affairs.Google Scholar
- Metzgar, E. T. (2012). Is it the medium or the message? Social media, American public diplomacy & Iran. Global Media Journal, 12(21), 1.Google Scholar
- Miller, D., & Horst, H. A. (2017). The digital and the human: A prospectus for digital anthropology. In H. A. Horst & D. Miller (Eds.), Digital anthropology (pp. 3–38). London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (2017). Denmark names first ever tech ambassador. Retrieved from http://um.dk/en/news/newsdisplaypage/?newsid=60eaf005-9f87-46f8-922a-1cf20c5b527a.
- Newsroom [Lexis Nexis]. (2015, November 23). 141215 Newsroom presentative NL [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4nESFy3FB4.
- Paulauskas, R. (2018). Understanding Lithuania’s digital diplomacy model [In person].Google Scholar
- Roberts, I. (2017). Satow’s diplomatic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Seo, H. (2013). The “Virtual Last Three Feet”: Understanding relationship perspectives in network-based public diplomacy. In R. S. Zaharna, A. Arsenault, & A. Fisher (Eds.), Relational, networked and collaborative approaches to public diplomacy (pp. 157–169). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Slaughter, A. M. (2017). The chessboard and the web: Strategies of connection in a networked world. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Sotiriu, S. (2015). Digital diplomacy: Between promises and reality. In C. Bjola & M. Holmes (Eds.), Digital diplomacy theory and practice (pp. 33–51). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Van Dijk, J. A. (2017). Digital divide: Impact of access. The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects, 1–11.Google Scholar
- Wichowski, A. (2015). ‘Secrecy is for losers’: Why diplomats should embrace openness to protect national security. In C. Bjola & M. Holmes (Eds.), Digital diplomacy theory and practice (pp. 52–70). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar