A Vocal and Volatile Online Public
This chapter offers a series of case studies demonstrating how the characteristics of digital publics have challenged diplomats’ norms, working routines and communicative cultures. The chapter is structured chronologically, so as to demonstrate that the digitalization of public diplomacy did not occur in one day, nor was it the result of a single digital interaction. Rather, the digitalization of public diplomacy has been a long-term process in which digital technologies, digital publics and digital initiatives have all impacted the conduct of public diplomacy. The chapter illustrates the digitalization of American public diplomacy, before examining the digital initiatives of the governments of Hamas, Israel, Sweden and the EU. Each case study demonstrates the manner in which interactions between digital publics and diplomats have shaped the digitalization of public diplomacy.
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