Assessing Health Professionals for Succession and Leadership Roles

  • Paul TurnerEmail author
Part of the Organizational Behaviour in Health Care book series (OBHC)


Leadership assessment is a strategic imperative for health sector organisations. Identifying an organisation’s existing leadership bench strength as well as those who are able to move into leadership positions in the future is therefore a key consideration in the leadership narrative. The observation that it is essential to determine now if your Board and Executive team have the skill sets needed to shepherd the organisation resonates across geographies, and the dynamic nature of the health environment adds to its criticality.


Leadership assessment Quantitative demand Qualitative demand Leadership competences 


  1. Agnew, C., & Flin, R. (2014). Senior Charge Nurses’ Leadership Behaviours in Relation to Hospital Ward Safety: A Mixed Method Study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(5), 768–780. Scholar
  2. Algarni, N., Mclaughlin, P., & Al-Ashaab, A. (2017). Developing a Framework to Improve Leadership Performance in Healthcare Organisations: The Case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. BMJ Leader, 1, A2–A3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American College of Healthcare Executives. (2018). Healthcare Leadership Competencies. Retrieved from
  4. American Medical Association. (2015). Integrated Leadership for Hospitals and Health Systems: Principles for Success. Retrieved from
  5. Beckman, D., & Warshawsky, N. (2017). Assessing Competencies Needed to Lead in an ACA World. Kentucky Nurse, 65(2), 18.Google Scholar
  6. Berghout, M. A., Fabbricotti, I. N., Buljac-Samardzic, M., & Hilders, C. M. (2017). Medical Leaders or Masters?—A Systematic Review of Medical Leadership in Hospital Settings. PLoS One, 12(9), e0184522. Scholar
  7. Berman, P., Pallas, S., Smith, A. L., Curry, L., & Bradley, E. H. (2011). Improving the Delivery of Health Services: A Guide to Choosing Strategies. The World Bank: Open Knowledge Repository (OKR).Google Scholar
  8. Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership (6th ed.). Cambridge: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. British Psychological Society. (2015). The Design and Delivery of Assessment Centres. Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society. Retrieved from Scholar
  10. Brownie, S., Thomas, J., McAllister, L., & Groves, M. (2014). Australian Health Reforms: Enhancing Interprofessional Practice and Competency Within the Health Workforce. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(3), 252–253. Scholar
  11. Calhoun, J., Dollett, L., Sinioris, M. E., Wainio, J. A., Butler, P. W., Griffith, J. R., et al. (2008). Development of an Interprofessional Competency Model for Healthcare Leadership. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(6), 375–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calzone, K. A., Jenkins, J., Culp, S., & Badzek, L. (2017). Hospital Nursing Leadership Led Interventions Increased Genomic Awareness and Educational Intent in Magnet® Settings. Nursing Outlook. Scholar
  13. Centre for Creative Leadership. (2016) Addressing the Leadership Gap in Healthcare. White Paper: Centre for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
  14. Chinese Medical Doctors Association. (2006). Retrieved from
  15. Chunharas, S., & Davies, D. S. C. (2016). Leadership in Health Systems: A New Agenda for Interactive Leadership. Health Systems & Reform, 2(3), 176–178. Scholar
  16. CIPD. (2014). Cultivating Trustworthy Leaders. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (with the University of Bath).Google Scholar
  17. CIPD. (2015). A Head for Hiring: The Behavioural Science of Recruitment and Selection. London, UK: Research Report, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  18. CIPD. (2016). Assessment Centres. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved from
  19. CIPD. (2017). Competency and Competence Frameworks. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved from
  20. CIPD. (2018). Selection Methods. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved from
  21. Cohen, K. R. (2011). The Case for Evidence-Based Human Capital Management: There Are Financial Benefits to Evidence-Based Recruitment, Selection, Development, and Retention—Underscoring the Need for Finance Executives to Become Actively Involved in Initiatives to Manage Their Organizations’ Talent. Healthcare Financial Management, 65(8), 102–107.Google Scholar
  22. Crethar, M. P., Phillips, J. N., Stafford, P. J., & Duckett, S. J. (2009). Leadership Transformation in Queensland Health. Australian Health Review, 3, 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cummings, G. G., MacGregor, T., Davey, M., Lee, H., Wong, C. A., Lo, E., et al. (2010). Leadership Styles and Outcome Patterns for the Nursing Workforce and Work Environment: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 363–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Czabanowska, K., Smith, T., Könings, K. D., Sumskas, L., Otok, R., Bjegovic-Mikanovic, V., et al. (2014a). In Search for a Public Health Leadership Competency Framework to Support Leadership Curriculum—A Consensus Study. European Journal of Public Health, 5, 850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Czabanowska, K., Rethmeier, K. A., Lueddeke, G., Smith, T., Malho, A., Otok, R., et al. (2014b). Public Health in the 21st Century: Working Differently Means Leading and Learning Differently. European Journal of Public Health, 6, 1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dauvrin, M., & Lorant, V. (2015). Leadership and Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals: A Social Network Analysis. Nursing Research, 64(3), 200–2010. Scholar
  27. Day, D. D., Hand, M. W., Jones, A. R., Kay Harrington, N., Best, R., & LeFebvre, K. B. (2014a). The Oncology Nursing Society Leadership Competency Project: Developing a Road Map to Professional Excellence. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 18(4), 432–436. Scholar
  28. Day, M., Shickle, D., Smith, K., Zakariasen, K., Moskol, J., & Oliver, T. (2014b). Training Public Health Superheroes: Five Talents for Public Health Leadership. Journal of Public Health, 36(4), 552–561. Scholar
  29. Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of Transformational Leadership on Follower Development and Performance: A Field Experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 735–744.Google Scholar
  30. Einarsen, S., Aasland, M. S., & Skogstad, A. (2007). Destructive Leadership Behaviour: A Definition and Conceptual Model. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(3), 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellinger, L. K., Trapskin, P. J., Black, R., Kotis, D., & Alexander, E. (2014). Leadership and Effective Succession Planning in Health-System Pharmacy Departments. Hospital Pharmacist, 9(4), 369–375. Scholar
  32. Fagerström, L., Lønning, K., & Andersen, M. H. (2014). The RAFAELA System: A Workforce Planning Tool for Nurse Staffing and Human Resource Management. Nursing Management—UK, 21(2), 30–36. Scholar
  33. Fernandes Carvalho, A. G., Kowal Olm Cunha, I. C., Pazetto Balsanelli, A., & Bernardes, A. (2016). Authentic Leadership and the Personal and Professional Profile of Nurses. Acta Paulista De Enfermagem, 29(6), 618–625. Scholar
  34. Fernandez, C. P., Noble, C. C., Jensen, E., & Steffen, D. (2015). Moving the Needle: A Retrospective Pre- and Post-Analysis of Improving Perceived Abilities Across 20 Leadership Skills. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(2), 343–352. Scholar
  35. Fibuch, E., & Van Way, C. W., III. (2012). Succession Planning in Health Care Organizations. Physician Executive, 38(5), 44–47.Google Scholar
  36. Fisher, E. M., & Wilmoth, M. C. (2017). Do I Take the Job? Assessing Fit with the Organization. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(2), 82–86. Scholar
  37. Fitzsimmons, M. J., & Rose, R. (2015). Designing Structure to Meet Demands, and Recruiting Talent to Achieve Results. Nurse Leader, 13(1), 1–84. ISSN:1541-4612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fraser, A. B., Stodel, E. J., & Chaput, A. J. (2016). Curriculum Reform for Residency Training: Competence, Change, and Opportunities for Leadership. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 63(7), 875–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garman, A., & Scribner, L. (2011). Leading for Quality in Healthcare: Development and Validation of a Competency Model. Journal of Healthcare Management, 56(6), 373–382. ISSN:1096-9012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gillespie, B. M., Hamlin, L., Polit, D. F., & Chaboyer, W. (2013). The Influence of Personal Characteristics on Perioperative Nurses’ Perceived Competence: Implications for Workforce Planning. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(3), 14–25. ISSN:0813-0531.Google Scholar
  41. Giri, P., Aylott, J., & Kilner, K. (2017). Self-Determining Medical Leadership Needs of Occupational Health Physicians. Leadership in Health Services (1751–1879), 30(4), 394–410. Scholar
  42. Gowing, M., Morris, D., Adler, S., & Gold, M. (2008). The Next Generation of Leadership Assessments: Some Case Studies. Public Personnel Management, 37(4), 435–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gregory, P. J., Harmon, L., Robbins, B., & Schwaitzberg, S. D. (2017). Leadership Development in a Professional Medical Society Using 360-Degree Survey Feedback to Assess Emotional Intelligence. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, 31(9), 3565–3573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greiner, L. E. (1998). Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow. Harvard Business Review, 76(3), 55–68.Google Scholar
  45. Grint, K. (2005). Leadership: Limits and Possibilities. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grint, K. (2007). Learning to Lead: Can Aristotle Help Us to Find the Road to Wisdom. Retrieved from
  47. Hadley, L., Black, D., Welch, J., & Penlington, C. (2015). Encouraging Formative Assessments of Leadership for Foundation Doctors. The Clinical Teacher, 12(4), 231–235. Scholar
  48. Hageman, M. G. J. S., Ring, D. C., Gregory, P. J., Rubash, H. E., & Harmon, L. (2015). Do 360-Degree Feedback Survey Results Relate to Patient Satisfaction Measures? Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 473(5), 1590–1597. Scholar
  49. Hanold, M. (2017). Toward a New Approach to Authentic Leadership: The Practice of Embodied Dialogical “Thinking” and the Promise of Shared Power. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 19(4), 454. Scholar
  50. Hatler, C., & Sturgeon, P. (2013). Resilience Building: A Necessary Leadership Competence. Nurse Leader, 11(4), 32–34. Scholar
  51. Herd, A. M., Alagaraja, M., & Cumberland, D. M. (2016). Assessing Global Leadership Competencies: The Critical Role of Assessment Centre Methodology. Human Resource Development International, 19(1), 27–43.Google Scholar
  52. Hewko, S. J., & Cummings, G. G. (2016). Performance Management in Healthcare: A Critical Analysis. Leadership in Health Services, 29(1), 52–68. Scholar
  53. Hlupic, V. (2014). The Management Shift. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hui-Gek Ang, Meng-Yeow Koh, Jeremy, Jeffrey Lee, & Yong-Hao Pua. (2016). Development and Preliminary Validation of a Leadership Competency Instrument for Existing and Emerging Allied Health Professional Leaders. BMC Health Services Research, 16, 64. ISSN:1472-6963.Google Scholar
  55. Humphreys, B., Couse, L., Sonnenmeier, R., Kurtz, A., Russell, S., & Antal, P. (2015). Transforming LEND Leadership Training Curriculum through the Maternal and Child Health Leadership Competencies. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19(2), 300–307. Scholar
  56. Jalil, R., Soukup, T., Akhter, W., Sevdalis, N., & Green, J. A. (2018). Quality of Leadership in Multidisciplinary Cancer Tumor Boards: Development and Evaluation of a Leadership Assessment Instrument (ATLAS). World Journal of Urology, 36(7), 1031–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jodar I Solà, G., Gené I Badia, J., Hito, P. D., Osaba, M. C., & Del Val García, J. L. (2016). Self-Perception of Leadership Styles and Behaviour in Primary Health Care. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1), 572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kainuma, M., Kikukawa, M., Nagata, M., & Yoshida, M. (2018). Competencies Necessary for Becoming a Leader in the Field of Community Medicine: A Japanese Qualitative Interview Study. BMJ Open, 8, e020082. Scholar
  59. Kalaitzi, V., & Czabanowska, K. (2016). Women’s Leadership in Healthcare—The Three Faceted Quest. European Journal of Public Health, 26(1), 1. Scholar
  60. Kanjananat, T., Wipada, K., Raymoul, N., & Thitinut, A. (2015). Development of a Competency Assessment Scale for Head Nurses in Community Hospitals. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 19(2), 122–134.Google Scholar
  61. Kantanen, K., Kaunonen, M., Helminen, M., & Suominen, T. (2015). The Development and Pilot of an Instrument for Measuring Nurse Managers’ Leadership and Management Competencies. Journal of Research in Nursing, 20(8), 667–677. ISSN:1744-9871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim, S. Y., & Kim, J. K. (2016). A Study on the Classification of Nursing Management Competencies and Development of Related Behavioral Indicators in Hospitals. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 46(3), 375–389. Scholar
  63. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  64. Kovačič, H., & Rus, A. (2015). Leadership Competences in Slovenian Health Care / Vodstvene Kompetence V Slovenskem Zdravstvu. Slovenian Journal of Public Health, 54(1), 11–17. Scholar
  65. Langford, P. H., Dougall, C. B., & Parkes, L. P. (2017). Measuring Leader Behaviour: Evidence for a ‘Big Five’ Model of Leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(1), 126–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lanier, W. L., & Rose, S. H. (2008). The Contemporary Medical Community: Leadership, Mentorship, and Career Choices. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83(9), 974–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lean Keng, S., & AlQudah, H. I. (2017). Assessment of Cognitive Bias in Decision-Making and Leadership Styles Among Critical Care Nurses: A Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 73(2), 465–481. Scholar
  68. Leenstra, N. F., Jung, O. C., Johnson, A., Wendt, K. W., & Tulleken, J. E. (2016). Taxonomy of Trauma Leadership Skills: A Framework for Leadership Training and Assessment. Academic Medicine, 91(2), 272–281. Scholar
  69. Lega, F., Prenestini, A., & Spurgeon, P. (2013). Is Management Essential to Improving the Performance and Sustainability of Health Care Systems and Organizations? A Systematic Review and a Roadmap for Future Studies. Value in Health, 16(1), S46–S51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lehr, B., Ostermann, H., & Schubert, H. (2011). Schwerpunkt: Competence-Based Demands Made of Senior Physicians: An Empirical Study to Evaluate Leadership Competencies. Zeitschrift Fuer Evidenz, Fortbildung Und Qualitaet Im Gesundheitswesen, 105 (Panta rhei—Alles fliesst), 723–733. Scholar
  71. Long, P. W., Lobley, K., Spurgeon, P. C., Clark, J. C., Balderson, S., & Lonetto, T. M. (2011). The CLCF: Developing Leadership Capacity and Capability in the Clinical Professions. International Journal of Clinical Leadership, 17(2), 111–118.Google Scholar
  72. Love, D. B., & Ayadi, M. F. (2015). Redefining the Core Competencies of Future Healthcare Executives under Healthcare Reform. Administrative Issues Journal: Education, Practice, and Research, 5(2), 3–16.Google Scholar
  73. Lurie, S. J. (2012). History and Practice of Competency-Based Assessment. Medical Education, 46(1), 49–57. Scholar
  74. Martin, A. (2015). Leadership: Talent Management: Preparing a ‘Ready’ Agile Workforce. International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 2(3–4), 112–116. ISSN:2352-6467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mitchell, L., & Boak, G. (2009). Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice. Journal of European Industrial Training, 33(8–9), 701–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mogere, D. M., & Muga, R. (2014). Assessment of Management and Leadership Skills, Competencies and Ability Among Health Care Managers Working in Level 3, 4 and 5 Hospitals, Nyanza Province—Kenya. Value in Health, 3, A148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Murauskiene, L., Janoniene, R., Veniute, M., & Karanikolos, M. (2013). Lithuania: Health System Review. Health Systems in Transition, 15(2), 1–150.Google Scholar
  78. NHS. (2010). Medical Leadership Competency Framework; Enhancing Engagement in Medical Leadership. 3rd ed. Retrieved from
  79. NHS. (2012). The Leadership Framework—Self Assessment Tool. London, UK: NHS Leadership Academy.Google Scholar
  80. Nurudeen, S. M., Kwakye, G., Berry, W. R., Chaikof, E. L., Lillemoe, K. D., Millham, F., et al. (2014). Can 360-Degree Reviews Help Surgeons? Evaluation of Multisource Feedback for Surgeons in a Multi-Institutional Quality Improvement Project. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 221(4), 837–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Orlewska, E. (2011). Challenges and Changes in the Polish Healthcare System. Society and Economy, 33(3), 575–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Patnaik, S. K., Gupta, S. K., Kant, S., & Pillay, R. (2017). Analysing Competencies of Indian Healthcare Leaders. International Journal of Research Foundation of Hospital and Healthcare Administration, 5(1), 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pereira Cardoso, M. A., Ramos, L. H., & D’Innocenzo, M. (2014). Coaching Leadership: Leaders’ and Followers’ Perception Assessment Questionnaires in Nursing. Einstein (16794508), 12(1), 66–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Petrides, K. V., Weinstein, Y., Chou, J., Furnham, A., & Swami, V. (2010). An Investigation into Assessment Centre Validity, Fairness, and Selection Drivers. Australian Journal of Psychology, 62(4), 227–235. Scholar
  85. Phan Van, T., & Nguyen Duc, T. (2017). A Leadership and Managerial Competency Framework for Public Hospital Managers in Vietnam. AIMS Public Health, 4(4), 418–429. Scholar
  86. Picker-Rotem, O., Schneider, A., Wasserzug, S., & Zelker, R. (2008). Nursing Leaders of Tomorrow: A Peer Selection Process. Journal of Nursing Management, 16(8), 915–920. Scholar
  87. Pihlainen, V., Kivinen, T., & Lammintakanen, J. (2016). Management and Leadership Competence in Hospitals: A Systematic Literature Review. Leadership in Health Services (1751–1879), 29(1), 95–110. Scholar
  88. Poikkeus, T., Leino-Kilpi, H., & Katajisto, J. (2014). Supporting Ethical Competence of Nurses During Recruitment and Performance Reviews—The Role of the Nurse Leader. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(6), 792–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Reichenpfader, U., Carlfjord, S., & Nilsen, P. (2015). Leadership in Evidence-Based Practice: A Systematic Review. Leadership in Health Services (1751–1879), 28(4), 298. Scholar
  90. Reuben Olugbenga, A., Nicola, N., Katharine Ann, W., Zhanming, L., & Annette, D. (2016). Outcomes and Impact of Training and Development in Health Management and Leadership in Relation to Competence in Role: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review Protocol. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 5(12), 715–720. Scholar
  91. Rick, C. (2014). Competence in Executive Nursing Leadership for the 21st Century: The 5 Eyes. Nurse Leader, 12, 64–66. Scholar
  92. Rosenman, E. D., Ilgen, J. S., Shandro, J. R., Harper, A. L., & Fernandez, R. (2015). A Systematic Review of Tools Used to Assess Team Leadership in Health Care Action Teams. Academic Medicine, 90(10), 1408–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rurik, I., & Kalabay, L. (2009). Primary Healthcare in the Developing Part of Europe: Changes and Development in the Former Eastern Bloc Countries That Joined the European Union Following 2004. Medical Science Monitor, 15(7), PH78–PH84.Google Scholar
  94. Sackett, P. R., Shewach, O. R., & Keiser, H. N. (2017). Assessment Centres Versus Cognitive Ability Tests: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom on Criterion-Related Validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(10), 1435–1447. Scholar
  95. Schultz, F. C., & Pal, S. (2004). Who Should Lead a Healthcare Organization: MDs or MBAs? Journal of Healthcare Management, 49(2), 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sikes, D., Jestes, E., LeClair-Smith, C., & Yates, R. R. (2015). Using a 360° Feedback Evaluation to Enhance Interprofessional Collaboration. Nurse Leader, 13, 64–69. Scholar
  97. Sinar, E., & Wellins, R. S. (2016). Cracking the Code to Leader Growth. TD: Talent Development, 70(3), 36–41.Google Scholar
  98. Spicer, J. G., Guo, Y., Liu, H., Hirsch, J., Zhao, H., Ma, W., et al. (2010). Collaborative Nursing Leadership Project in the People’s Republic of China. International Nursing Review, 57(2), 180–187. Scholar
  99. Spurgeon, T. (2008). Multi-Source Feedback: The Importance of Enhanced Self-Reflection in the Context of Leadership Competences. International Journal of Clinical Leadership, 16(3), 143–148.Google Scholar
  100. Stefl, M. E. (2008). Common Competencies for All Healthcare Managers: The Healthcare Leadership Alliance Model. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(6), 360–373. ISSN:1096-9012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stempniak, M. (2013). Value-Based Leadership: Is Your Hospital Management Team Prepared for the Future? H&HN Hospitals & Health Networks, 87(5), 41.Google Scholar
  102. Storberg-Walker, J., & Gardiner, R. A. (2017). Authentic Leadership in HRD—Identity Matters! Critical Explorations on Leading Authentically. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 19(4), 350–361. Scholar
  103. Sundean, L. J. (2017). Healthcare Board Competency Survey for Nurses: Assessing Board Readiness. Nursing Economic$, 35(6), 295–303.Google Scholar
  104. Townsend, E. A., Polatajko, H. J., Craik, J. M., & von Zweck, C. M. (2011). Introducing the Leadership in Enabling Occupation (LEO) Model. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 78(4), 255–259. Scholar
  105. Trastek, V. F., Hamilton, N. W., & Niles, E. E. (2014). Leadership Models in Health Care—A Case for Servant Leadership. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 89(3), 374–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Trustee. (2015). Leadership Assessment and Competencies. Trustee, 68(6), 12.Google Scholar
  107. Turner, P. A. (2010). Reflections on Workforce Planning. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  108. Turner, P. A. (2017). Talent Management in Healthcare. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  109. Ulrich, B., Lavandero, R., & Early, S. (2014). Leadership Competence: Perceptions of Direct Care Nurses. Nurse Leader, 12, 47–50. Scholar
  110. Usha Marath, R. (2015). Impact of Leadership Development Package on Leadership Competencies of Undergraduate Nursing Students. Asian Journal of Nursing Education & Research, 5(2), 221–228. Scholar
  111. Walker Company. (2018). Using your Board of Trustees Self-Assessment to Improve Leadership Effectiveness. Retrieved from
  112. Watson, C. (2008). Assessing Leadership in Nurse Practitioner Candidates. The Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(1), 67–76.Google Scholar
  113. West, M., Armit, K., Loewenthal, L., Eckert, R., West, T., & Lee, A. (2015). Leadership and Leadership Development in Healthcare: The Evidence Base. London: Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management.Google Scholar
  114. White, K. R., Pillay, R., & Huang, X. (2016). Article: Nurse Leaders and the Innovation Competence Gap. Nursing Outlook, 64, 255–261. Scholar
  115. Wolf, J. A. (2008). Health Care, Heal Thyself! An Exploration of What Drives (and Sustains) High Performance in Organizations Today. Performance Improvement, 47(5), 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wood, L., Hassell, A., Whitehouse, A., Bullock, A., & Wall, D. (2006). A Literature Review of Multi-Source Feedback Systems Within and Without Health Services, Leading to 10 Tips for Their Successful Design. Medical Teacher, 28(7), 185–191. Scholar
  117. Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in Organisations. London: Pearson.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leeds Business SchoolLeeds Beckett UniversityLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations