• André Augusto Rodrigues SalgadoEmail author
  • Leonardo José Cordeiro Santos
  • Julio César Paisani
Part of the Geography of the Physical Environment book series (GEOPHY)


Brazil is a country with continental dimensions having a wide variety of landscapes. These landscapes were divided into nine (from south to north): (1) the Pampas that constitute a low-range plateau relief with sub-tropical climate and the grasslands vegetation; (2) the Subtropical Araucaria Plateaus, characterized by volcanic and sedimentary plateaus with sub-tropical climate, grasslands, and ombrophilous forests; (3) the Tropical Atlantic which encompasses ranges and coastal plains that receive the direct humidity of the Atlantic Ocean and therefore has a humid tropical climate and tropical humid forest vegetation; (4) the Pantanal, which is a relief depression with Semi-humid climate which in the rainfall season becomes a great wetlands; (5) the Semi-humid landscape characterized by many plateaus and depressions with Semi-humid climate and savannah vegetation; (6) the Semi-arid landscape that constitutes ranges, plateaus and depressions with dry climate and steppe vegetation; (7) the Cocais, that is, a transitional landscape between the Semi-humid, Semi-arid, and the Amazon domains, that developed on lowlands; (8) The Amazon, an immense super-humid green area occupying the entire northern/northwestern of Brazil, with a complex relief and the largest rivers and rain forests of the world; (9) the Coastal Brazil which is not a typical landscape unit since it has characteristics changing accordingly to the neighboring units, but it is a synthesis of the Brazilian coast which has more than 9.200 km of extension and high variable environments. Because of its history involving a series of peoples—indigenous, Latin American, Germanic and Slavic, African, Japanese, Arab—Brazil is today a complex society with two hundred million inhabitants, reasonably industrialized and a great producer of food and minerals. Nowadays, it is one of the ten biggest economies in the world and has many cities with more than one million people.


  1. Ab’Sáber AN (1967) Domínios morfolclimáticos e províncias fitogeográficas do Brasil. Orientação 3:45–48Google Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • André Augusto Rodrigues Salgado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leonardo José Cordeiro Santos
    • 2
  • Julio César Paisani
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Department of GeographyFederal University of ParanáCuritibaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of GeographyState University of Western ParanáCascavelBrazil

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