Advertisement

The Transformation of State Monitoring Systems in Germany and the US: Relating the Datafication and Digitalization of Education to the Global Education Industry

  • Sigrid HartongEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, I examine the expanding datafication and digitalization of education, focusing on the transformation of monitoring systems in state-level school administration. This transformation is an important, yet underexplored, facet of the Education Technology (EdTech) market, related more broadly to the rise of the Global Education Industry (GEI). It has altered and introduced new roles for state, business, private, and philanthropic actors assembled around technology discourses and rationales that not only reframe educational monitoring practices but also the daily practices of school, student, and teacher data administration. These, as a result of increased standardization and interoperability, have become simultaneously more centralized, as well as more disaggregated and personalized.

References

  1. Allen, J. (2011). Topological Twists: Power’s Shifting Geographies. Dialogues in Human Geography, 1(3), 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, J., & Cochrane, A. (2010). Assemblages of State Power: Topological Shifts in the Organization of Government and Politics. Antipode, 42(5), 1071–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anagnostopoulos, D., Rutledge, S. A., & Jacobsen, R. (Eds.). (2013). The Infrastructure of Accountability. Data Use and the Transformation of American Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, S. J. (2009). Academies in Context: Politics, Business and Philanthropy and Heterarchical Governance. Management in Education, 23(3), 100–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ball, S. J. (2012). Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neo-liberal Imaginary. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, S. J. (2016). Following Policy: Networks, Network Ethnography and Education Policy Mobilities. Journal of Education Policy, 31(5), 549–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball, S. J., & Junemann, J. (2012). Networks, New Governance and Education. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  8. Beer, D. (2017). The Data Analytics Industry and the Promises of Real-Time Knowing: Perpetuating and Deploying a Rationality of Speed. Journal of Cultural Economy, 10(1), 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breiter, A., Grönert, T., & Lange, A. (2014). Schulverwaltungssoftware in den Bundesländern 2014. Bremen, Germany: ifib.Google Scholar
  10. Bulger, M., McCormick, P., & Pitcan, M. (2017, February 2). The Legacy of InBloom (Data & Society Working Paper). New York: Data & Society.Google Scholar
  11. Center on Education Policy (CEP). (2002). A New Federal Role in Education. Washington, DC: CEP.Google Scholar
  12. Clarke, J., Bainton, D., Lendvai, N., & Stubbs, P. (Eds.). (2015). Making Policy Move: Towards a Politics of Translation and Assemblage. Chicago: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  13. CoSN. (2017). Sponsorship Opportunities (pp. 2017–2018). Washington, DC: CoSN.Google Scholar
  14. Courtney, S. J. (2015). Corporatised Leadership in English Schools. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 47(3), 214–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Data Quality Campaign (DQC). (2017). From Hammer to Flashlight. A Decade of Data in Education. Washington, DC: DQC.Google Scholar
  16. Emejulu, A., & Mcgregor, C. (2016). Towards a Radical Digital Citizenship in Digital Education. Critical Studies in Education, 1–17.Google Scholar
  17. Fenwick, T., & Edwards, R. (2016). Exploring the Impact of Digital Technologies on Professional Responsibilities and Education. European Educational Research Journal, 15(1), 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hartong, S. (2015). Global Policy Convergence Through ‘Distributed Governance’? The Emergence of ‘National’ Education Standards in the US and Germany. Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy, 31(1), 10–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartong, S. (2016a). Between Assessments, Digital Technologies, and Big Data: The Growing Influence of ‘Hidden’ Data Mediators in Education. European Educational Research Journal, 15(5), 523–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hartong, S. (2016b). New Structures of Power and Regulation Within ‘Distributed’ education Policy—The Example of the US Common Core State Standards Initiative. Journal of Education Policy, 31(2), 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hartong, S. (2018a). Towards a Topological Re-assemblage of Education Policy? Observing the Implementation of Performance Data Infrastructures and ‘Centers of Calculation’ in Germany. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16(1), 134–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hartong, S. (2018b). Bildungsstandardisierung in den USA. Vergessene Ursprünge und aktuelle Transformationen. Weinheim, Germany: Juventa.Google Scholar
  23. Hartong, S., Hermstein, B., & Höhne, T. (Eds.). (2018). Ökonomisierung von Schule? Aktuelle Transformationen des schulischen Feldes in nationaler und internationaler Perspektive. Weinheim, Germany: Juventa.Google Scholar
  24. Heinrich, M., & Kohlstock, B. (Eds.). (2016). Ambivalenzen des Ökonomischen: Analysen zur „Neuen Steuerung“ im Bildungssystem. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  25. Hepp, G. F. (2011). Bildungspolitik in Deutschland. Eine Einführung. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herman, M. (2016, January 13). Data Dashboards a High Priority in National Ed-Tech Plan. Education Week.Google Scholar
  27. Herold, B. (2017, June 21). Gates, Zuckerberg Teaming Up on Personalized Learning. Education Week.Google Scholar
  28. Hogan, A., Sellar, S., & Lingard, B. (2016). Commercialising Comparison: Pearson Puts the TLC in Soft Capitalism. Journal of Education Policy, 31(3), 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Honig, M. I. (2004). The New Middle Management: Intermediary Organizations in Education Policy Implementation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(1), 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Horn, M. (2014, December 4). InBloom’s Collapse Offers Lessons for Innovation in Education. Forbes.Google Scholar
  31. Kirst, M. W. (2004). Turning Points: A History of American School Governance. In N. Epstein (Ed.), Who’s in Charge Here? The Tangled Web of School Governance and Policy (pp. 14–41). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  32. Klesmann, M. (2017, October 21, 22). Handeln nach Zahlen. Schulleiter sollen mit Hilfe interner Daten ihre Schulen besser machen. Jedes Jahr soll die Schulaufsicht die Ergebnisse kontrollieren. Berliner Zeitung, p. 11.Google Scholar
  33. KMK. (2003). Kerndatensatz (KDS) für schulstatistische Individualakten der Länder. Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz vom 8. 5. 2003. Berlin, Germany: KMK.Google Scholar
  34. KMK. (2006). Gesamtstrategie der Kultusministerkonferenz zum Bildungsmonitoring. München, Germany: Luchterhand/KMK.Google Scholar
  35. Koyama, J. P. (2011). Generating, Comparing, Manipulating, Categorizing: Reporting, and Sometimes Fabricating Data to Comply with the No Child Left Behind Mandates. Journal of Education Policy, 26(5), 701–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lewis, S., & Lingard, B. (2015). The Multiple Effects of International Large-Scale Assessment on Education Policy and Research. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 36(5), 621–637.Google Scholar
  37. Lubienski, C., Brewer, T. J., & La Londe, P. G. (2016). Orchestrating Policy Ideas: Philanthropies and Think Tanks in US Education Policy Advocacy Networks. The Australian Educational Researcher, 43(1), 55–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lury, C., Parisi, L., & Terranova, T. (2012). Introduction: The Becoming Topological of Culture. Theory, Culture & Society, 29(4–5), 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Macgilchrist, F. (2018, forthcoming). Discourse, Digital Education and the Teacher: Driving Change in Educational Technology. Culture-Society-Education.Google Scholar
  40. Mayer-Schönberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2013). Big Data. Die Revolution, die unser Leben verändern wird. München, Germany: Redline.Google Scholar
  41. Niemann, D. (2010). Turn of the Tide—New Horizons in German Education Policymaking Through IO Influence. In K. Martens, A.-K. Nagel, & M. Windzio (Eds.), Transformation of Education Policy (pp. 77–104). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Niemann, D., Hartong, S., & Martens, K. (2018). Observing Local Dynamics of ILSA Projections: A Comparison Between Germany and the U.S. Globalisation, Societies and Education (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  43. Pietry, P. J. (2013). Assessing the Educational Data Movement. New York: Teacher College Press.Google Scholar
  44. Ravitch, D. (2010). The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  45. Reckhow, S. (2013). Follow the Money: How Foundation Dollars Change Public School Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Roberts-Mahoney, H., Means, A. J., & Garrison, M. J. (2016). Netflixing Human Capital Development: Personalized Learning Technology and the Corporatization of K-12 Education. Journal of Education Policy, 31(4), 405–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Robertson, S. L., & Dale, R. (2015). Towards a ‘Critical Cultural Political Economy’ Account of the Globalising of Education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 13(1), 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sacks, P. (1999). Standardized Minds: The High Price of America’s Testing Culture and What We Can Do to Change It. New York: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
  49. Savage, G. C., & O’Connor, K. (2015). National Agendas in Global Times: Curriculum Reforms in Australia and the USA Since the 1980s. Journal of Education Policy, 30(5), 609–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sellar, S., & Thompson, G. (2016). The Becoming-Statistic: Information Ontologies and Computerized Adaptive Testing in Education. Cultural Studies? Critical Methodologies, 16(5), 491–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shulman, R. (2017, May 17). Global Ed-Tech Investments and Outlook: 10 Ed-Tech Companies You Should Know About. Forbes.Google Scholar
  52. Steiner-Khamsi, G., & Waldow, F. (Eds.). (2012). Policy Borrowing and Lending in Education. World Yearbook of Education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Tillmann, K. J., Dedering, K., Kneuper, D., Kuhlmann, C., & Nessel, I. (2008). PISA als bildungspolitisches Ereignis: Fallstudien in vier Bundesländern. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. US Department of Education. (2012). Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics: An Issue Brief. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  55. Verger, A., Fontdevila, C., & Zancajo, A. (2016). The Privatization of Education: A Political Economy of Global Education Reform. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  56. Verger, A., Lubienski, C., & Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2016). World Yearbook of Education 2016: The Global Education Industry. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Wilkoszewski, H., & Sundby, E. (2014). Steering from the Centre: New Modes of Governance in Multi-level Education Systems (OECD Education Working Papers, 109). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  58. Williamson, B. (2016a). Boundary Brokers: Mobile Policy Networks, Database Pedagogies, and Algorithmic Governance in Education. In T. Ryberg, C. Sinclair, S. Bayne, & M. de Laat (Eds.), Research, Boundaries, and Policy in Networked Learning (pp. 41–57). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Williamson, B. (2016b). Silicon Startup Schools: Technocracy, Algorithmic Imaginaries and Venture Philanthropy in Corporate Education Reform. Critical Studies in Education, 59(2), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Williamson, B. (2016c). Digital Methodologies of Education Governance: Pearson Plc and the Remediation of Methods. European Educational Research Journal, 15(1), 34–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Williamson, B. (2017). Learning in the ‘Platform Society’: Disassembling an Educational Data Assemblage. Research in Education, 98(1), 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesHelmut-Schmidt-University HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations