Advertisement

A New Encryption Scheme Method (ESM) Using Capsulated-Layers Conception for Verified QR-Tag for IoT-Based Smart Access Systems

  • Abbas M. Al-GhailiEmail author
  • Hairoladenan Kasim
  • Marini Othman
  • Zainuddin Hassan
Chapter
Part of the Intelligent Systems Reference Library book series (ISRL, volume 154)

Abstract

A new encryption algorithm is proposed and designed which is followed by a verification algorithm used to access such Internet-of-Things (IoT) based systems. A three Layer Encryption Algorithm (3LEA) is designed to generate a cryptographic Quick Response (QR) tag. In order to use this QR-tag as a secret key with IoT-based systems, a three Processes Verification Algorithm (3PVA) has been proposed to verify QR-tag values. In order to make a decision either to approve or disapprove a request to access an IoT-based system, a three-Layer Protection Algorithm (3LPA) is proposed. 3LPVA applies math operations to authenticate confidentiality, integrity, and availability of QR-tag (i.e., smart key). Thus, once the smart key is verified, an access to the IoT-based system is allowed. The 3LEA, 3PVA, and 3LPA are designed in such a way and capsulated using a new Encryption Scheme Method (ESM). The ESM contributes much to IoT technology era in terms of systems security; it is used as a smart key designer and verifier for IoT access systems. The ESM is evaluated in terms of security factors, decryption time, robustness, unpredictability, and 3LEA’s technical evaluation. Results show good performance of robustness and an unpredictability behavior of 3LEA.

Keywords

IoT Computer security Encryption scheme QR tag 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research study is funded by UNIIG (J510050781/2017-B2).

References

  1. 1.
    Lin, S.S., Hu, M.C., Lee, C.H., Lee, T.Y.: Efficient QR code beautification with high quality visual content. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 17, 1515–1524 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rane, S., Dubey, A., Parida, T.: Design of IoT based intelligent parking system using image processing algorithms. In: 2017 International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC), pp. 1049–1053 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alshattnawi, S.: Effective use of QR codes in religious tourism. In: International Conference on Advanced Computer Science Applications and Technologies, pp. 497–501 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huang, H.-F., Liu, S.-E., Chen, H.-F.: Designing a new mutual authentication scheme based on nonce and smart cards. J. Chin. Inst. Eng. 36, 98–102 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hung, C.H., Fanjiang, Y.Y., Chung, K.C., Kao, C.Y.: A door lock system with augmented reality technology. In: IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE), pp. 1–2 (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tkachenko, I., Puech, W., Destruel, C., Strauss, O., Gaudin, J.M., Guichard, C.: Two-level QR code for private message sharing and document authentication. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 11, 571–583 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rodrigues, B., Chaudhari, A., More, S.: Two factor verification using QR-code: a unique authentication system for Android smartphone users. In: 2016 2nd International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I), pp. 457–462 (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kanaris, L., Kokkinis, A., Fortino, G., Liotta, A., Stavrou, S.: Sample size determination algorithm for fingerprint-based indoor localization systems. Comput. Netw. 101, 169–177 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Samuel, S.S.I.: A review of connectivity challenges in IoT-smart home. In: 2016 3rd MEC International Conference on Big Data and Smart City (ICBDSC), pp. 1–4 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ota, K., Kumrai, T., Dong, M., Kishigami, J., Guo, M.: Smart infrastructure design for smart cities. IT Prof. 19, 42–49 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen, Y.H., Tsai, M.J., Fu, L.C., Chen, C.H., Wu, C.L., Zeng, Y.C.: Monitoring elder’s living activity using ambient and body sensor network in smart home. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, pp. 2962–2967 (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kavitha, K.J., Shan, B.P.: Implementation of DWM for medical images using IWT and QR code as a watermark. In: 2017 Conference on Emerging Devices and Smart Systems (ICEDSS), pp. 252–255 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin, P.Y.: Distributed secret sharing approach with cheater prevention based on QR code. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 12, 384–392 (2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nazemzadeh, P., Fontanelli, D., Macii, D., Palopoli, L.: Indoor localization of mobile robots through QR code detection and dead reckoning data fusion. IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 22, 2588–2599 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xiao-Long, W., Chun-Fu, W., Guo-Dong, L., Qing-Xie, C.: A robot navigation method based on RFID and QR code in the warehouse. In: 2017 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC), pp. 7837–7840 (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghaffari, M., Ghadiri, N., Manshaei, M.H., Lahijani, M.S.: P4QS: a peer-to-peer privacy preserving query service for location-based mobile applications. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 66, 9458–9469 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kirkham, T., Armstrong, D., Djemame, K., Jiang, M.: Risk driven Smart Home resource management using cloud services. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 38, 13–22 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim, Y.G., Jun, M.S.: A design of user authentication system using QR code identifying method. In: 2011 6th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology (ICCIT), pp. 31–35 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas M. Al-Ghaili
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hairoladenan Kasim
    • 2
  • Marini Othman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zainuddin Hassan
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Informatics and Computing in Energy (IICE)Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)KajangMalaysia
  2. 2.College of Computer Science and Information Technology (CSIT)UNITENKajangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations