Advertisement

Community, Individualism and Social Capital, the Political Economy of Transfers

  • Jacques Charmes
Chapter
Part of the Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development book series (DTSD, volume 10)

Abstract

Social capital, which encompasses solidarities in traditional societies and can be measured by the amount of transfers (received and given) from household to household, can be envisaged as an obstacle to individualism, private initiative and economic development. Still, during crises, it is a powerful shock absorber and can play the role of missing public social protection systems in economies where paid employment remains the exception. Social capital and household-to-household transfers have played a major role in maintaining the living standards and providing the livelihood to those members of extended families who are in need in sub-Saharan African societies. But the deepening of the globalisation process with the extension of individualisation as its correlate, the start of long delayed demographic transitions with the hope to benefit from the demographic dividend and also the entry into ageing societies have characterised the recent period; in addition, successive crises occurred during the past two decades: all are factors explaining why the embeddedness of traditional societies in sound social interrelations – in social capital – may be seen as vanishing. The challenges of poverty, gender equality and more generally most of those borne by the SDGs raise the question of the possibility and opportunity of a social protection floor for all in Africa.

References

  1. ANSD. (2015). Enquête Pauvreté et Structure Familiale 2010–11, Rapport de synthèse des résultats, Dakar, 422p.Google Scholar
  2. Ballet, J. & Mahieu, F. R. (2003). Le capital social, mesure et incertitude du rendement. In: Ballet, J., & Guillon, R. (eds.), Regards croisés sur le capital social. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  3. Bourdieu Pierre (1980, janvier), Le capital social, notes provisoires, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales Vol. 31, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  4. Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. (1992). Réponses. Pour une anthropologie réflexive. Paris: Le Seuil.Google Scholar
  5. Central Statistical Agency. (2018). Ethiopian Household Consumption Expenditure (HCE) survey 2015–16. Statitical Bulletin. CSA. Addis Ababa.Google Scholar
  6. Charmes, J. (1977). De l’ostentation à l’accumulation. Production et reproduction des rapports marchands dans les sociétés traditionnelles à partir de l’analyse du surplus, in Ouvrage collectif: “Essais sur la reproduction des formations sociales dominées” (pp. 105–137). Travaux et Documents de l’ORSTOM, n° 64, 192p.Google Scholar
  7. Charmes, J. (1978). Les blocages socio-culturels au développement en tant que manifestations de rapports de domination. Mondes en développement, n°24, pp. 877–908.Google Scholar
  8. Charmes, J. (1993). Les conséquences de l’afflux des réfugiés du Togo sur l’économie et la société béninoise: Méthodes et mesures. PNUD-HCR.Google Scholar
  9. Charmes, J. (2003). ‘Le capital social: quelques conceptions et données empiriques tirées du contexte africain’. In J. Ballet & R. Guillon (Eds.), Regards croisés sur le capital social. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  10. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement), 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Courade, G. (Ed.). (2006). L’Afrique des idées reçues. Paris: Belin.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, S. (1996). Adaptable livelihoods: Coping with food insecurity in the Malian Sahel. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Direction de la Prévision et de la Statistique (DPS). (2004). Rapport de synthèse de la deuxième enquête sénégalaise auprès des ménages (ESAM II), 260p.Google Scholar
  14. European Report on Development (ERD). (2010). Social protection for inclusive development. A new perspective on EU Cooperation with Africa. San Domenico di Fiesole: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.Google Scholar
  15. Eurostat. (2014). Living conditions in Europe, 2014 edition. Luxemburg.Google Scholar
  16. Gambia Bureau of Statistics. (2011). Integrated household survey income and expenditure, poverty assessment 2010 (80p). Kanifing: Gambia Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  17. ILO. (2012). Social protection floors for social justice and a fair globalization. Report IV(1) International Labour Conference, 101st session 2012, Geneva.Google Scholar
  18. INSD. (2006). Analyse des résultats de l’enquête Burkinabe sur les conditions de vie des ménages 2003, Rapport final, 223p.+46p.Google Scholar
  19. INSEE. (2017). France, Portrait social, Paris, 271p.Google Scholar
  20. INSTAT. (1997). Transferts entre les ménages et réseaux de solidarité dans l’agglomération d’Antananarivo en 1997. Premiers résultats de l’Enquête SET 1997, Projet Madio.Google Scholar
  21. Marie, A. (2000). Individualization strategies among city Dwellers in Contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcoming of community solidarity and the individualism of the struggle for survival. International Review of Social History, 45, 137–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marie, A. (Ed.). (2008a). L’Afrique des individus, Itinéraires citadins dans l’Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey). Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  23. Marie, A. (2008b). Du sujet communautaire au sujet individuel, Une lecture anthropologique de la réalité africaine contemporaine. In Marie, A. (Ed.), 2008, L’Afrique des individus. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  24. Observatoire du Développment Humain Durable ed la Lutte contre la Pauvreté (ODHD). (2008). Transferts de revenus et réduction de la pauvreté au Mali. Bamako: ODHD-UNICEF.Google Scholar
  25. Ouma, S. O. A. (1995). The role of social protection in the socioeconomic development of Uganda. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 10(2), 5–12.Google Scholar
  26. Vuarin, R. (2000). Un système africain de protection sociale au temps de la mondialisation (252p). Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  27. World Bank and KNOMAD. (2017). Migration and remittances: Recent development and outlook. Migration and Development Brief, 28, 40p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Charmes
    • 1
  1. 1.IRD University of Paris DescartesParisFrance

Personalised recommendations