Advertisement

Trends and Characteristics of the Informal Economy and Its Components

  • Jacques Charmes
Chapter
Part of the Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development book series (DTSD, volume 10)

Abstract

The size of the informal economy and of its main components can be assessed in terms of employment and in terms of contribution to GDP, based on the most appropriate and reliable sources available at country level. Pluri-activity (multiple jobs holding) is also highlighted as a major characteristic of informality. In order to assess the trends over time, it can be necessary to use indirect measures for periods when no direct data collection is available and averages by regions are unweighted in order to give an idea of the regional profile rather than reaching global figures of the phenomenon (that would require assumptions for missing countries). In all regions and in all countries, a peak of employment in the informal economy is observed for the period of the world financial crisis in 20082009. Among the main characteristics of the informal economy, it can be stressed that the larger the size of the informal economy, the larger the size of its component of microbusinesses in the informal sector and of its contribution to GDP.

References

  1. AFRISTAT. (1999). PIB plus comparables dans les pays de l’UEMOA, Bamako, 43p. + annexes.Google Scholar
  2. ANSD. (2015). Enquête Pauvreté et Structure Familiale 2010–11, Rapport de synthèse des résultats, Dakar, 422p.Google Scholar
  3. ANPE/OEF. (2011). Enquête Emploi Permanente Auprès des Ménages (EPAM) 2010. Bamako. 107p.Google Scholar
  4. Bourdet, Y., Dabitao, K., & Aoua, S. D. (2012). Croissance, emploi et politiques pour l’emploi au Mali. Genève: Bureau international du Travail.Google Scholar
  5. Calzaroni, M. (2000). L’occupazione come strumento per la stima esaustiva del PIL e la misura del sommerso, Seminario “La Nuova Contabilita Nazionale”, 12–13 June 2000, ISTAT, Roma, 70p.Google Scholar
  6. Calzaroni, M., Pascarella, C., & Pisani, S. (2000). Il sommerso. Aspetti metodologici e quantificazioni per una estima esaustiva dell’input di lavoro e del PIL, (The underground. Methodological aspects and quantification of an exhaustive estimation of labour input and GDP), Seminar ‘La Nuova Contabilita Nazionale, 12–13 January, ISTAT, Roma.Google Scholar
  7. Charmes, J. (1991). Pluri-activité des salariés et pluri-activité des agriculteurs. Deux exemples de mesure et d’estimation : Italie et Burkina-Faso [Pluri-activity among employees and pluri-activity among farmers. Two examples of measurement and estimation: Italy and Burkina Faso]. In S. Montagné-Villette (Ed.), Espaces et travail clandestins Paris: Masson. 157p. (pp. 25–32)Google Scholar
  8. Charmes, J. (1996). Le secteur informel au Burkina Faso. Evolution sur longue période et suivi conjoncturel. Ministère de l’Economie, des Finances et du Plan. GTZ. Ouagadougou. 30p.Google Scholar
  9. Charmes, J. (1998). Contribution of Women Working in the Informal Sector in Africa: A Case Study, Paper prepared for the United Nations Statistics Division. “Umbrella Gender Statistics Programme” and presented at the Delhi Group Meeting on Informal Sector Statistics. Ankara, 28–30 April 1998.Google Scholar
  10. Charmes, J. (1999). Informal sector, Poverty and Gender. In A Review of Empirical Evidence, Background paper for the World Development Report 2000–2001. Washington: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  11. Charmes, J. (2009). Concepts, Measurement and Trends. In P. Jütting Johannes & R. de Laiglesia Juan (Eds.), Is informal normal? Towards more and better jobs in developing countries (pp. 27–62). Paris: An OECD Development Centre Perspective.Google Scholar
  12. Charmes, J. (2011), A worldwide overview of trends and characteristics of employment in the informal economy and informal sector in a gender perspective. Contribution to the update of the ILO-WIEGO Women and Men in the Informal Economy.Google Scholar
  13. Charmes, J. (2012). The informal economy worldwide: Trends and characteristics. Margin—The Journal of Applied Economic Research, 6(2), 103–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gambia Bureau of Statistics. (2013). The Gambia Labour Force Survey 2012. Kanifing, The Gambia, 232p.Google Scholar
  15. HCP. (various years). Activité, Emploi, Chômage. Résultats détaillés. Rabat.Google Scholar
  16. ILO. (1993a, January 19–28). Statistics of employment in the informal sector. Report for the 15th international conference of labour statisticians – Geneva.Google Scholar
  17. ILO. (1993b). Report of the Conference, Report of the 15th international conference of labour statisticians – Geneva 19–28 January 1993.Google Scholar
  18. ILO. (1998a). XVIth international conference of labour statisticians, Report 1: Measurement of underemployment, Geneva, 62p.Google Scholar
  19. ILO. (1998b). Report of the XVIth international conference of labour statisticians, Geneva, 143p.Google Scholar
  20. ILO. (2000). Current international recommendations on labour statistics, Geneva, 89p.Google Scholar
  21. INEGI. (2015). Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales de México. Medición de la economía informal. Fuentes y metodología. Mexico. 16p.Google Scholar
  22. INEGI. (2017). Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales de México. Medición de la economía informal. 2003 - 2015, Base 2008. Valor agregado bruto del sector informal, serie 2003-2015, por sector de actividad. Mexico.Google Scholar
  23. INS. (2005). Enquête sur l’emploi et le secteur informel au Cameroun en 2005 (EESI). Yaoundé. 82p.Google Scholar
  24. INS. (2007). L’Emploi, le Chômage et les Conditions d’Activité en République Démocratique du Congo : Principaux résultats de la phase 1 de l’Enquête 1-2-3 2004-2005. Kinshasa.58p.Google Scholar
  25. INS. (2011). Deuxième enquête sur l’emploi et le secteur informel au Cameroun en 2010 (EESI 2). Phase 1. Enquête sur l’Emploi. Yaoundé. 131p.Google Scholar
  26. INS. (2014). Enquête 1-2-3. Résultats de l’enquête sur l’emploi, le secteur informel et sur la consommation des ménages 2012. Kinshasa.163p.Google Scholar
  27. INSD. (2000). Analyse des résultats de l’enquête prioritaire sur les conditions de vie des ménages 1998. Ouagadougou. 282p.Google Scholar
  28. INSD. (1996). Analyse des résultats de l’enquête prioritaire sur les conditions de vie des ménages, Direction des Statistiques Générales, Projet d’Appui Institutionnel aux Dimensions Sociales de l’Ajustement, Ouagadougou, 278p.Google Scholar
  29. INSEED. (2006). Deuxième Enquête sur la Consommation et le Secteur Informel au Tchad 2003–04 (ECOSIT2). Rapport final. N’Djaména. 100p.Google Scholar
  30. INSEED. (2013). L’Emploi au Tchad en 2011. Troisième Enquête sur la Consommation et le Secteur Informel au Tchad (ECOSIT3). Rapport final. N’Djaména. 102p.Google Scholar
  31. INSTAT. (2013). Enquête Nationale sur l’Emploi et le Secteur informel ENEMPSI 2012. Vols. 1 and 2. Antananarivo. 85+91p.Google Scholar
  32. ISTAT. (1999). L’occupazione non regolare nelle nuovo stime di contabilita nazionale, Anni 1992–1997, ISTAT, Roma, 15 + 5p.Google Scholar
  33. Kolli, R., & Sinharay, A. (2011a, July–December). Share of Informal sector and Informal Employment in GDP and Employment, The Journal of Income and Wealth, Indian Association for Research in National Income and Wealth, New Delhi, 33(2).Google Scholar
  34. Kolli, R., & Sinharay, A. (2011b, July–December). Informal Employment by Institutional Sectors and Activities in India. The Journal of Income and Wealth, Indian Association for Research in National Income and Wealth, New Delhi, 33(2).Google Scholar
  35. National Bureau of Statistics. (2007). Analytical Report of the Integrated Labour Force Survey ILFS 2006, Dar Es Salam, 124p. National Bureau of Statistics. (2015). Analytical Report of the Integrated Labour Force Survey ILFS 2014, Dar Es Salam, 152p. Google Scholar
  36. ONS. (various years). Enquête Emploi auprès des Ménages. Alger.Google Scholar
  37. Schneider, F. (2005). Shadow economies of 145 countries all over the world: Estimation results over the period 1999 to 2003. Linz: Johannes Kepler University of Linz.Google Scholar
  38. Schneider, F., Buehn, A., & Montenegro, C. (2010). Shadow Economies all over the World: New Estimates for 162 Countries from 1999 to 2007. Background paper for In from the Shadow: Integrating Europe’s Informal Labor. Southern Europe/Baltic countries: A World Bank regional report on the informal sector in Central.Google Scholar
  39. Schneider, F., & Enste, D. (2000). Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences. Journal of Economic Literature, XXXVIII, 77–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. SNA. (1993). System of national accounts. New York: Commission of the European Communities/IMF/OECD/UN/WB.Google Scholar
  41. SNA. (2008). System of national accounts. New York: Commission of the European Communities/IMF/OECD/UN/WB.Google Scholar
  42. Standing, G. (1999). Global Labour Flexibility: Seeking distributive justice. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 441p.Google Scholar
  43. ZIMSTAT. (2015). Labour Force and Child Labour Survey LFCLS 2014. Harare. 295p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Charmes
    • 1
  1. 1.IRD University of Paris DescartesParisFrance

Personalised recommendations