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Seismic Interpretation in Petroleum Exploration

  • Christopher L. Liner
  • T. A. (Mac) McGilvery
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Earth Sciences book series (BRIEFSEARTH)

Abstract

The application of the seismic technique to petroleum exploration has evolved well beyond its original emphasis on imaging of subsurface structure. Regional data sets are key to understanding basin scale structural style and basin fill cyclicity. Seismic interpretation supports evaluation of all of the conventional petroleum systems elements: source, degree of source maturation, reservoir presence and quality, trap geometry and seal capacity. The practice of seismic and sequence stratigraphy aid in definition of potential source intervals based on lapout surfaces that may indicate organic marine condensed sections or coal-rich to lacustrine deposits in topset geometries. Basin fill cyclicity defined by regional horizon mapping is commonly integrated with heat flow modeling to evaluate potential source kitchens. Seismic geomorphology and attribute analyses are applied to the understanding of reservoir body geometry and the degree of stratigraphic compartmentalization. Acquisition of high-resolution 3D seismic surveys and related prestack time and depth migration has greatly enhanced the ability to image steep dips, complex structures, and trapping configuration. Top seals are generally defined as regionally mappable mudrich stratigraphic units. Evaluation of pressure seals and sealing capacity can be supported by analysis of structural relief, fluid pressure fetch areas, and the presence of gas clouds.

Keywords

Basin types Blown traps Conventional plays Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) Hydrocarbon migration pathway Petroleum system elements Prospect Relative sea-level Reservoir Stratigraphic architecture Trap geometry 

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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher L. Liner
    • 1
  • T. A. (Mac) McGilvery
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeosciencesUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

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