Demise of School Curriculum: Post-schooling and the Rise of Trans-boundary Learning

  • Young Chun KimEmail author
  • Jung-Hoon Jung
Part of the Curriculum Studies Worldwide book series (CSWW)


This chapter discusses the eroding status of public schooling as students’ reliance on it for their learning declines. The authors conceive of this phenomenon as ‘post-schooling.’ This chapter provides the definition of post-schooling and describes its characteristics in terms of the roles of schooling and school teachers. Taking the students’ point of view, the authors describe how students’ learning culture is changing in a post-schooling era. The authors characterize the new mode of learning, which occurs in numerous spaces, as ‘trans-boundary.’ Their notion of trans-boundary learning incorporates educational space, materials, educators, and considerations of who makes important decisions for a student’s education. The authors anticipate that the phenomenon of post-schooling and the complex mode of trans-boundary learning will continue to increase rapidly.


  1. Baudrillard, J. (1994). Simulacra and simulation. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bernstein, B. (1975). Class and pedagogies: Visible and invisible. Educational Studies, 1(1), 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, research, critique (Rev. ed.). Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  4. Bray, M. (2011). The challenge of shadow education: Private tutoring and its implications for policy makers in the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  5. Cheng, J. (2007). In Hong Kong, flashy test tutors gain icon status; with faces on billboards, ‘Gods’ promise top scores; Mr. Ng’s two Ferraris. The Wall Street Journal (Occidental Edition). Accessed September 2, 2017. Retrieved from
  6. Chua, A. (2011). Battle Hymn of the tiger mother. New York, NY: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  7. Doll, W. E., & Trueit, D. (2012). Pragmatism, postmodernism, and complexity theory: The “Fascinating Imaginative Realm” of William E. Doll, Jr. New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  8. du Bois-Reymond, M. (2013). Extended education in the Netherlands. International Journal for Research on Extended Education, 1(1), 5–17.Google Scholar
  9. Dyson, A., & Jones, L. (2014). Extended schools in England: Emerging rationales. International Journal for Research on Extended Education, 2(1), 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D., & Perraton, J. (1999). Global transformation. Academic OneFile, 22(2), 7.Google Scholar
  11. Holm, L. (2015). Researching extended schooling ethnographically: With Danish all-day schools as examples. International Journal for Research of Extended Education, 3(1), 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hunt, J. (2008). Make room for daddy… and mommy: Helicopter parents are here! The Journal of Academic Administration in Higher Education, 4(1), 9–11.Google Scholar
  13. Je, M. J. (2002). An analysis on preference of the trend toward shadow education (MA dissertation). Department of Education, Hongik University.Google Scholar
  14. Jung, J.-H. (2016). The concept of care in curriculum studies. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Jung, J.-H. (2018). Decolonizing educational/curriculum studies in East Asia: Problematizing shadow education in South Korea. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 19(2), 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim, Y. C. (2016). Shadow education, curriculum, and culture of schooling in South Korea. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim, Y. C., & Kim, P. S. (2012). Hakwon does not die: Secrets of Korean education that Obama did not know. Gyeonggi: Academy Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kim, Y. C., & Kim, P. S. (2015). The best hakwons top 7. Paju: Academy Press.Google Scholar
  19. Kim, Y. C., Gough, N., & Jung, J. (2018). Shadow education as an emerging focus in worldwide curriculum studies. Curriculum Matters, 14, 8–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kwon, D. T. (2012). The study on school-based after-school activities and support programmes in Hong Kong. Korean Journal of Comparative Education, 22(5), 255–276.Google Scholar
  21. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1988). Architecture: Meaning and place. New York: Rizzoli.Google Scholar
  22. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). PISA 2009 technical report. Retrieved September 2, 2017 from
  23. Ozaki, M. (2015). A juku childhood: Children’s experiences in juku attendance and its relation to their well-being in Japan (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Bath, Claverton Down, UK.Google Scholar
  24. Paramita, S. (2015). “We follow the private tutors not the teachers”: An ethnographic insight into educational practices among the students of an Indian city. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4(4), 819–840.Google Scholar
  25. Park, S., Lim, H., & Choi, H. (2015). “Gangnam mom”: A qualitative study on the information behaviors of Korean helicopter mothers. In iConference 2015 Proceedings. Retrieved from
  26. Pinar, W. F. (2015). Educational experience as lived: Knowledge, history, alterity. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Poetter, T. S., & Googins, J. (2017). Was someone mean to you today? The impact of standardization, corporatization, and high stakes testing on students, teachers, communities, schools, and democracy. Cincinnati, OH: Van Griner.Google Scholar
  28. Pyo, M. N. (2017, September 7). i-scream used by 99% of elementary school teachers. Retrieved from
  29. Ripley, A. (2013). The smartest kids in the world: And how they got that way. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  30. Schüpbach, M. (2014). Extended education in Switzerland: Values in past, present, and future. International Journal for Research of Extended Education, 2(2), 104–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schüpbach, M., & von Allmen, B. (2013). Swiss national report on research on extended education. International Journal for Research of Extended Education, 1(1), 18–30.Google Scholar
  32. Schwab, J. J. (1969). The practical: A language for curriculum. School Review, 78(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Spera, C., Wentzel, K. R., & Matto, H. C. (2009). Parental aspirations for their children’s educational attainment: Relations to ethnicity, parental education, children’s academic performance, and parental perceptions of school climate. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 38(8), 1140–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sriprakash, A., Proctor, H., & Hu, B. (2015). Visible pedagogic work: Parenting, private tutoring and educational advantage in Australia. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 37(3), 1–16.Google Scholar
  35. Vincent, C., & Ball, S. (2007). ‘Making up’ the middle-class child: Families, activities and class dispositions. Sociology, 41(6), 1061–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vincent, C., Rollock, N., Ball, S., & Gillborn, D. (2012). Being strategic, being watchful, being determined: Black middle-class parents and schooling. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 33(3), 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vincent, C., Rollock, N., Ball, S., & Gillborn, D. (2013). Raising middle-class black children: Parenting priorities, actions and strategies. Sociology, 47(3), 427–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Williams, J. (2013). Gilles Deleuze’s difference and repetition: A critical introduction and guide. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Wilson, E. O. (1999). Consilience: The unity of knowledge. New York: A Division of Random Inc.Google Scholar
  40. Yang, I., & Kim, B. C. (2010). A qualitative case study on the school life of middle school students who go to private educational institute. The Korea Educational Review, 16(3), 117–153.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chinju National University of EducationJinjuKorea (Republic of)
  2. 2.Chonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea (Republic of)

Personalised recommendations