Shadow Education for Gifted and Highly Motivated Learners

  • Young Chun KimEmail author
  • Jung-Hoon Jung
Part of the Curriculum Studies Worldwide book series (CSWW)


This chapter focuses on shadow education for gifted and highly motivated students. The authors explain that little research exists on the topic because existing research on shadow education tends to take an educational equality perspective. In their effort to understand how gifted and highly motivated learners learn in shadow education spaces, the authors thus draw from their fieldwork in South Korea. They first provide the general features of gifted education in South Korea. Then, they discuss how the various forms of shadow education in South Korea help gifted and highly motivated students with their academic success. The authors describe many teaching and learning materials, teaching methods, and curricula that are used in the shadow education sector, which are generally not found in public schooling. These distinctive features of shadow education provide gifted and highly motivated students with tools and skills they cannot obtain elsewhere.


  1. Ahn, S. Y., & Baek, H. J. (2013). Academic achievement-oriented society and its relationship to the psychological well-being of Korean adolescents. In C. C. Yi (Ed.), The psychological well-being of East Asian youth (pp. 265–279). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Aurini, J. (2006). Crafting legitimation projects: An institutional analysis of private education businesses. Sociological Forum, 21(1), 83–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aurini, J., & Davies, S. (2004). The transformation of private tutoring: Education in a franchise form. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 29(3), 419–438.Google Scholar
  4. Bray, M. (2013). Benefits and tensions of SE: Comparative perspectives on the roles and impact of private supplementary tutoring in the lives of Hong Kong students. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 2(1), 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byun, S. (2010). Does policy matter in SE spending? Revisiting the effects of the high school equalization policy in South Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11, 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho, J. S. (2015). Where are Korean bright students at school studying? Qualitative case study on curriculum of an Einstein hakwon for smart students (Master’s dissertation). Jinju National University of Education. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  7. Choe, H. S. (2016). Suggesting some conceptual and practical improvement coping to moribund symptoms of contemporary Korean gifted education. The Korean Journal of Gifted/Talented Education, 26(3), 493–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choi, S. G. (2009). A study on the academic life and culture of Korean high school students. Research Report of the Korean Educational Development Institute.Google Scholar
  9. Dang, H., & Rogers, F. (2008). How to interpret the growing phenomenon of private tutoring: Human capital deepening, inequality increasing, or waste of resources? Policy Research Working Paper, 4530. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, G. A., Rimm, S. B., & Siegle, D. B. (2011). Education of the gifted and talented (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.Google Scholar
  11. Gagne, F. (2011). Academic talent development and the equity issue in gifted education. Talent Development & Excellence, 3(1), 3–22.Google Scholar
  12. Gillen-O’Neel, C., Huynh, V. W., & Fuligni, A. J. (2013). To study or to sleep? The academic costs of extra studying at the expense of sleep. Child Development, 84(1), 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Go, S. M., & Han, K. S. (2015). A qualitative study of elementary gifted students’ quality of life. The Journal of the Korean Society for the Gifted and Talented, 14(4), 173–198.Google Scholar
  14. Han, C. H. (2010). A study on mathematics education for the gifted and talented in middle school: Focus on situations in educational institutes for the gifted and talented under Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (Master’s thesis). Dankook University.Google Scholar
  15. Han, K.-S., & Park, Y. (2013). Why gifted students participate in private education: A study on the current status and key factors of the attendance in private education. Journal of Gifted/Talented Education, 23(4), 505–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hong & Eun. (2017). Alternative report to the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Republic of Korea, 62th session. Retrieved from
  17. Ireson, J. (2004). Private tutoring: How prevalent and effective is it? London Review of Education, 2(2), 109–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Je, M. J. (2002). An analysis on preference of the trend toward SE (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hongik University.Google Scholar
  19. Jun, J. Y. (2015, June 7). Hakwon makes ‘gifted children’. The Hankyoreh. Retrieved from
  20. Jung, J.-H. (2016). The concept of care in curriculum studies. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. KAIST. (2017). KAIST admission rule. Daejeon: Office of Admission in KAIST.Google Scholar
  22. Kim, M. (2003). Private institute education: Competition and anxiety of the South Korean middle class. Korean Journal of Society of Education, 13(3), 67–87.Google Scholar
  23. Kim, M. K. (2001). Research of the gifted education system in Korea (Doctoral dissertation). Dankook University.Google Scholar
  24. Kim, S. M. (2014). An analysis of an elementary math class program for gifted students and its current status (Master’s thesis). Daegu National University of Education.Google Scholar
  25. Kim, S. S. (2008). Symbolic violence and pre-modern academic clique society. Society and Philosophy, 16, 131–160.Google Scholar
  26. Kim, Y. C. (2016). Shadow education and the curriculum and culture of schooling in South Korea (Curriculum Studies Worldwide). New York, NY: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim, Y. C., & Kim, P. S. (2012). Hakwon does not die: Secrets of Korean education that Obama did not know. Gyeonggi: Academy Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kim, Y. C., & Kim, P. S. (2015). The best hakwons top 7.Paju: Academy Press.Google Scholar
  29. Korean Education Ministry. (2016). Academic background info of Korean university freshman. Seoul: Korean Council for University Education.Google Scholar
  30. Lee, J. K. (2007). Two worlds of private tutoring: The prevalence and causes of after-school mathematics tutoring in Korea and the United States. Teacher College Record, 109(5), 1207–1234.Google Scholar
  31. Loyalka, P., & Zakharov, A. (2014). Does SE help students prepare for college? Higher School of Economics Research Paper, 15, 1–25.Google Scholar
  32. Marzano, R. J. (2000). Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  33. Mawer, K. (2015). Casting new light on SE: Snapshots of juku variety. Contemporary Japan, 27(2), 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ministry of Education. (2014). The act on the promotion of education for the gifted and talented law. Seoul: Korea Ministry of Government Legislation.Google Scholar
  35. Mundy, S. (2014). South Korea’s millionaire tutors. Financial Times. Retrieved from
  36. Neihart, M., Reis, S. M., Robinson, N. M., & Moon, S. N. (2002). The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? Washington, DC: Prufrock Press.Google Scholar
  37. Noh, H. W. (2012). The influence of parental income on academic achievement. Retrieved from
  38. Oh, S. J. (2012, May 9). Influence of excessive hakwon education on children’s development. Oh My News. Retrieved from
  39. Ozaki, M. (2015). A juku childhood: Children’s experiences in juku attendance and its relation to their well-being in Japan (Doctoral dissertation). University of Bath.Google Scholar
  40. Paramita, S. (2015). “We follow the private tutors not the teachers”: An ethnographic insight into educational practices among the students of an Indian city. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4(4), 819–840.Google Scholar
  41. Park, H. (2008). An analysis of the relationship between the quality of the school education and the participation in the private tutoring. Asian Educational Research, 9(4), 61–77.Google Scholar
  42. Park, D. H. (2017, July 17). 512 students admitted to medical school during 8 years of science/youngjae high school. Veritas-a. Retrieved from
  43. Park, S. H., Lim, H. C., & Choi, H. K. (2015). “Gangnam mom”: A qualitative study on the information behaviors of Korean helicopter mothers. In iConference 2015 Proceedings. Retrieved from
  44. Paul, A. M. (2011). The roar of the tiger mom. Time (Asia), 177(4), 24–30.Google Scholar
  45. Statistics Korea. (2015). The survey of private education expenses for elementary school to high school. Seoul: National Statistics Korea.Google Scholar
  46. Statistics Korea. (2016). The survey of private education expenses for elementary school to high school. Seoul: National Statistics Korea.Google Scholar
  47. Yang, I., & Kim, B. C. (2010). A qualitative case study on the school life of middle school students who go to private educational institute. The Korea Educational Review, 16(3), 117–153.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chinju National University of EducationJinjuKorea (Republic of)
  2. 2.Chonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea (Republic of)

Personalised recommendations