Mathematics and questioning PISA: The Key Reason of Seeking Shadow Education

  • Young Chun KimEmail author
  • Jung-Hoon Jung
Part of the Curriculum Studies Worldwide book series (CSWW)


This chapter focuses on shadow education for mathematics. The authors examine the global popularity of shadow education for mathematics, discussing how crucial mathematics is for students’ academic success, and the difficulties of meeting individual student needs at public school. Within this context, the authors deliberate on why many students seek opportunities to learn math out of schooling. Based on the five forms of shadow education practices that they categorized in Chapter  3, the authors also analyze the types and characteristics of shadow education for mathematics. Their detailed descriptions of the curriculum, teaching methods used in math shadow education, and students’ positive experiences help explain its pervasiveness, and highlight the effectiveness of math shadow education practices.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chinju National University of EducationJinjuKorea (Republic of)
  2. 2.Chonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea (Republic of)

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