CUTOS: A Framework for Contextualizing Evidence

  • Ariel M. AloeEmail author
  • Christopher G. Thompson
  • Deborah K. Reed


Researchers often emphasize the need for evidence from previous research to understand what is already known about a specific program or intervention. Even in the presence of high-quality evidence, consumers of research often find it difficult to interpret and apply the findings to their specific context. Many fields are incorporating evidence-based practices and the use of systematic reviews to understand what the evidence supports. However, there is little in the literature that tells us how to interpret the findings based on the intended application being considered, despite stressing the importance of doing so. This chapter introduces a framework that gives us a set of tools for disentangling what is known and a space to contemplate whether and which findings are applicable to a specific context. This implementation framework starts by identifying known evidence about what is going to be implemented (i.e., what the evidence supports) and how the components of such evidence apply to a specific context (population, organization, resources, etc.). In addition, this active implementation framework emphasizes the importance of collaborative decision-making between researchers and stakeholders.


Implementation Generalization Systematic review Meta-analysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariel M. Aloe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher G. Thompson
    • 2
  • Deborah K. Reed
    • 3
  1. 1.The University of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Iowa Reading Research CenterIowa CityUSA

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