Immersive Environments for Disaster and Emergency Management

  • Rifaat AbdallaEmail author
  • Marwa Esmail
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


Immersive environments are simulations that fill the user’s visual field, giving the sensation of physical presence. Virtual Reality delivers immersion from the individual’s point of view, while immersive rooms bring many viewers into the same simulation. Virtual Reality and other immersive Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have a high potential for transforming the real world and the way in which we interact with it.


  1. Active Worlds. (1999).
  2. Backman, A. (2000). Augmented reality.
  3. Batty, M., Dodge, M., Doyle, S., & Smith, A. (1998). Modeling virtual environments. In P. Longley, S. Brooks, R. McDonnell, & B. MacMillan (Eds.), Geocomputation: A primer (pp. 139–161). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Batty, M., Dodge, M., Jiang, B., & Smith, A. (1999). GIS and urban design. In S. Geertman, S. Openshaw, & J. Stillwell (Eds.), Geographical information and planning: European perspectives (pp. 43–65). London, New York, Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Brodlie, K., & Wood, J. (2000). Volume graphics and the internet. In M. Chen, A. Kaufman, & R. Yagel (Eds.), Volume graphics (pp. 317–331). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, I. M. (1999). Developing a virtual Reality user interface for geographic information retrieval on the internet. Transactions in GIS, 3, 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doyle, S., Dodge, M., & Smith, A. (1998). The potential of web-based mapping and virtual reality technologies for modeling urban environments. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 22, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dykes, J., Moore, K., & Fairbairn, D. (1999a). From Chernoff to Imhof and beyond: VRML and cartography. In Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (pp. 99–104). Paderborn, Germany.Google Scholar
  9. Dykes, J., Moore, K., & Wood, J. (1999b). Virtual environments for student fieldwork using networked components. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13, 397–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ESRI. (1997). ArcView 3D analyst. Redlands, California: Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Fairbairn, D., & Parsley, S. (1997). The use of VRML for cartographic presentation. Computers & Geosciences, 23, 475–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faust, N. L. (1995). The virtual reality of GIS. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 22, 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang, B., Dodge, M., & Batty, M. (1997). Realistic visualization of urban environments. Apposition paper presented to ICA Visualization Commission Meeting, 20–22 June 1997. Gavle, Sweden.Google Scholar
  14. Kahkonen, J., Lehto, L., Kilpelainen, T., & Sarjakoski, T. (1999). Interactive visualization of geographical objects on the internet. International Journal of Geographical Information Sciences, 13, 429–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kraak, M. J., & MacEachren, A. M. (1999). Visualization for exploration of spatial data. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13, 285–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liarokapis, F., Greatbatch, I., Mountain, D., Gunesh, A., Brujic-okretic, V., & Raper, J. (2005, July 6–8). Mobile augmented reality techniques for geovisualization. In IEEE Computer Society Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information Visualization, IEEE Computer Society (pp. 745–751).Google Scholar
  17. Lopez-Gonzalez, L., Otero de Cosca, R., Gomez-Heras, M., & Garcia-Morales, S. (2016). A 4D GIS methodology to study variations in evaporation points on a heritage building. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(14), 1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. MacEachren, A. M., Kraak, M. J., & Verbree, E. (1999). Cartographic issues in the design and application of geospatial virtual environments. In Proceedings of the 19th International Cartographic Conference, 14–21 August, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  19. Madden, K., & Seifi, L. (2011). Digital surrogate preservations of manuscripts and Iranian heritage: Enhancing research. New Library World, 112(9/10), 452–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Martin, D., & Higgs, G. (1997). The visualization of socio-economic GIS data using virtual reality tools. Transactions in GIS, 1, 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mikropoulos, T. A., & Natsis, A. (2011). Educational virtual environments: A ten-year review of empirical research (1999–2009). Computers & Education, 56, 769–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moore, K., Dykes, J., & Wood, J. (1999). Using java to interact with geo-referenced VRML within a virtual field course. Computers & Geosciences, 25, 1125–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peng, Z. (1999). An assessment framework for the development of internet GIS. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 26, 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Plewe, B. (1997). GIS-online: Information retrieval, mapping, and the internet. Santa Fe, USA: On Word Press.Google Scholar
  25. Raper, J., McCarthy, T., & Williams, N. (1999). Georeferenced four-dimensional virtual environments: Principles and applications. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 22, 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rhyne, T. (1997). Going virtual with geographic information and scientific visualization. Computers & Geosciences, 23, 489–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schill, S. R. (1999). Erdas imagine virtual GIS 8.4. Software Review. PE & RS, 65, 860–866.Google Scholar
  28. Singhal, S., & Zyda, M. (1999). Networked virtual environments–design and implementation. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  29. Smith, S. (1997). Realism in modeling the built environment using the World Wide Web. Habitat, 4, 17–18.Google Scholar
  30. Verbree, E., van Maren, G., Germs, R., Jansen, F., & Kraak, M. J. (1999). Interacting in virtual world views—Linking 3D GIS with VR. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13, 385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesCollege of Science, Sultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  2. 2.Cairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations