Maritime Governance, Security Measures and Port Competition in the EU

  • Xufan ZhangEmail author
  • Michael Roe


The impacts of the CSI on EU container seaport competition have been discussed in Chapter  8 through analysing the conceptual assumptions developed in Chapter  4. The analyses were based on the secondary data collected from the literature review and primary data from the Delphi survey. The Delphi results suggested that the CSI has not caused competition distortion in the EU container seaport industry and no evidence has shown that ports are suffering an unrecoverable burden from CSI compliance in terms of costs and efficiency within the EU. The findings are quite different from that suggested by previous research. There is a lack of existing theories or models to explain such differences. As this research is shaped through adopting an abductive approach, a model is developed and will be explained in this chapter to interpret the findings from this Delphi survey. Although this model is built upon existing knowledge and theories, it provides a new perspective which originates from the political and economic environment to investigate how maritime security measures affect the port industry, rather than looking at individual determinants.


  1. Allen, N. H. (2006). The container security initiative costs, implications and relevance to developing countries. Public Administration and Development, 26(5), 439–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvesson, M., & Sköldberg, K. (1994). Tolkning och Reflektion. Vetenskapsfilosofi och Kvalitativ Metod. Lund: Studentlitteratur.Google Scholar
  3. Andreewsky, E., & Bourcier, D. (2000). Abduction in language interpretation and law making. Kybernetes, 29(7/8), 836–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachtler, J., & Ferry, F. (2013). Conditionalities and the performance of european structural funds: A principal–agent analysis of control mechanisms in european union cohesion policy. Regional Studies, 49(8), 1258–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baird, A. J., & Valentine, V. F. (2007). Port privatisation in the United Kingdom. In M. R. Brooks & K. Cullinane (Eds.). Devolution, Port Governance and Port Performance: Research in Transportation Economics (Vol. 17, pp. 55–84). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  6. Banomyong, R. (2005). The impact of port and trade security initiatives on maritime supply chain management. Maritime Policy and Management, 32(1), 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauer, M. W. (2006). Co-managing programme implementation: Conceptualizing the European Commission’s role in policy execution. Journal of European Public Policy, 13(5), 717–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennathan, E., & Walters, A. A. (1979). Port Pricing and Investment Policy for Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bichou, K. (2008). Security and risk-based models in shipping and ports: Review and critical analysis. In ITF, Terrorism and International Transport: Towards Risk-Based Security Policy. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Bichou, K. (2011). Assessing the impact of procedural security on container port efficiency. Maritime Economics and Logistics, 13(1), 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bichou, K., & Gray, R. (2005). A critical review of conventional terminology for classifying seaports. Transportation Research A, 39, 75–92.Google Scholar
  12. Bove, V., Elia, L., & Sekeris, P. (2014). Us security strategy and the gains from bilateral trade. Review of International Economics, 22(5), 863–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooks, M. R., & Cullinane, K. (2007). Devolution, Port Governance and Port Performance. London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  14. CBP. (2014). CSI: Container Security Initiatives. Available at Accessed 27 August 2016.
  15. Cvitanić, J., & Zhang, J. (2013). Principal–Agent Problem, in Contract Theory in Continuous-Time Models (pp. 3–6). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Dallimore, C. (2008). Securing the Supply Chain: Does the Container Security Initiative Comply with WTO Law? (Dissertation, University of Muenster). Available at Accessed 30 January 2016.
  17. Danermark, B., Ekstrom, M., Jakobsen, L., & Karlsson, J. C. (2001). Explaining Society: An Introduction to Critical Realism in the Social Sciences. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. De Langen, P. W., & van der Lugt, L. M. (2007). Governance structures of port authorities in the Netherlands. Research in Transportation Economics, 17, 109–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dekker, S., & Stevens, H. (2007). Maritime security in the European Union-empirical findings on financial implications for port facilities. Maritime Policy and Management, 34(5), 458–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dholakia, N., Hales, D. N., & Lee, S. W. (2009). Competitiveness of Asian and American Ports: Implications for Global Supply Chains (University of Rhode Island Working Paper Series 2009. No. 24). College of Business Administration.Google Scholar
  21. Donner, M., & Kruk, C. (2009). Supply Chain Security Guide. The World Bank/DFID, 1, pp. 1–107. Available at Accessed 20 April 2016.
  22. Drewry. (1998, April). World Container Terminals: Global Growth and Private Profit. London: Drewry.Google Scholar
  23. Dubois, A., & Gadde, L. E. (2002). Systematic combining: An abductive approach to case research. Journal of Business Research, 42(1), 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elgie, R. (2002). The politics of the European central bank: Principal–agent theory and the democratic deficit. Journal of European Public Policy, 9(2), 186–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Estache, A., Gonza’lez, M., & Trujillo, L. (2002). Efficiency gains from port reform and the potential for yardstick competition: Lessons from Mexico. World Development, 30(4), 545–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. GAO. (2003). Container Security: Expansion of Key Customs Programs Will Require Greater Attention to Critical Success Factors 2003 (United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) Reports), p. 1.Google Scholar
  27. Gilpin, R. (1987). The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haynes, J., Hough, P., Malik, S., & Pettiford, L. (2011). World Politics. London: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
  29. Kassim, H., & Menon, A. (2003). The principal-agent approach and the study of the European Union: Promise unfulfilled? Journal of European Public Policy, 10(1), 121–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirkeby, O. F. (1990). Abduction. In H. Andersen (Ed.), Vetenskapsteori och metodla¨ra. Introduktion (C. G. Liungman, Trans.). Lund: Studentlitteratur.Google Scholar
  31. Kovács, G., & Spens, K. M. (2005). Abductive reasoning in logistics research. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 35(2), 132–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lloyd’s List. (2014). Top 20 European Ports. Available at Accessed 25 May 2015.
  33. McConville, J. (1999). Economics of Maritime Transport Theory and Practice (1st ed.). London: Witherby & Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  34. Meersman, H. M. A. (2005). Port investments in an uncertain environment. Research in Transportation Economics, 13, 279–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meersman, H., Van de Voorde, E., & Vanelslander, T. (2010). Port competition revisited. Review of Business Economic Literature, 55(2), 210–232.Google Scholar
  36. Metaparti, P. (2010). Rhetoric, rationality and reality in post-9/11 maritime security. Maritime Policy and Management, 37(7), 723–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nijdam, M., de Jong, O., van der Horst, M., van den Bossche, M., de Swart, L., & Buckmann, E. (2014). Level Playing Field: Study on Distorted Cross-Border Competition Between Seaports, RHV-Erasmus University/Ecorys. Available at Accessed 4 March 2016.
  38. Notteboom, T. (2012, April 18). Dynamics in port competition in Europe: Implications for North Italian ports. Workshop ‘I porti del Nord’-Milan.Google Scholar
  39. OECD. (2003). Maritime Transport Committee Security in Maritime Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact. Available at
  40. Parliament of Australia. (2003). The US Container Security Initiative and Its Implications for Australia. Available at
  41. Port of Rotterdam. (2015). Port of Rotterdam Statistics. Available at Accessed 14 February 2017.
  42. Roe, M. (2013). Maritime Governance and Policy-Making. London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith, A. (1910). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: J. M. Dent.Google Scholar
  44. Song, D. W. (2003). Port co-opetition in concept and practice. Maritime Policy and Management, 30(1), 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Talley, W. K. (2009). Port Economics. New York: Taylor and Francis Group.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tirole, J. (1986). Hierarchies and bureaucracies: On the role of collusion in organisations. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organisation, 2(2), 181–214.Google Scholar
  47. Tirole, J. (2014). Market Power and Regulation. Scientific Background on the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2014. Stockholm: The Economic Sciences Prize Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  48. Tongzon, J., & Heng, W. (2005). Port privatisation, efficiency and competitiveness: Some empirical evidence from container ports (terminals). Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 39(5), 405–424.Google Scholar
  49. Usher, D. (2003). Political Economy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Valleri, M. A., Lamonarca, M., & Papa, P. (2007). Port governance in Italy. In M. R. Brooks & K. Cullinane (Eds.), Devolution, Port Governance and Port Performance: Research in Transportation Economics (Vol. 17, pp. 139–153). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  51. Wang, J., Ng, A. K. Y., & Olivier, D. (2004). Port governance in China: A review of policies in an era of internationalising port management practices. Transport Policy, 11(3), 237–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Xinhua News Agency. (2016, July). China, Greece Pin Great Hopes on Piraeus Port.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LogisticsBeijing WuZi UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Graduate School of ManagementPlymouth UniversityPlymouthUK

Personalised recommendations