Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles
Vehicles have become the primary cause of greenhouse gas emission. A comprehensive technique used for estimating energy consumption and environmental impact of vehicles is known as life cycle assessment which comprises of two parts: fuel life cycle and vehicle life cycle. Emissions from fuel life cycle is estimated using GREET (greenhouse gases regulated emissions and energy consumption in transportation) model. Vehicle life cycle emissions are calculated based on mass and type of material used for vehicle production, type of energy/electricity used for vehicle operation and its life time. This chapter made a comparison between the life cycle CO2 emissions of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). The impacts of EVs are highly dependent on vehicle operation energy consumption and the electricity mix used for charging. For example EVs in China produce more CO2 emissions compared to ordinary ICE vehicles whereas that in Germany, USA, and Japan produce less emissions.
The third author is supported by a fellowship of the Alexander Von Humboldt Research Foundation, Germany at the Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
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