Acute Hepatitis C

  • Joop E. ArendsEmail author
  • Maria Cristina Leoni
  • Dominique Salmon-Ceron


Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remain one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide with a varying incidence among different countries. Acute HCV infection classically refers to the first 6 months after exposure to the virus. During recent years, incidence seems to be changing in many countries: lowering rates due to improved case detection and improved prevention of transmission (i.e., unsafe medical procedures) or higher due to emerging of prevalent routes especially among injection drug users and men who have sex with men (MSM). Diagnosis of acute infection could be challenging and is mainly based on serological and molecular assays, since clinical symptoms are not present in most patients. Spontaneous viral clearance occurs in about 25% of individuals, generally in the first 3–6 months of infection due to complex interaction between virus and host, which is only partially understood. HCV reinfections have been described in people who injected drugs (PWID) and MSM who cleared the infection spontaneously or were successfully treated. Treatment of acute HCV is now based on a combination of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and it seems promising even if clear recommendations regarding optimal regimen and treatment duration are currently unavailable. Data are lacking also on pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis. Implementation of screening, information campaigns, and community awareness together with early treatment could be the strategies to control the spread of HCV infection.


Acute HCV Injection drug use (IDU) People who inject drugs (PWID)  Men who have sex with men (MSM) Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) 


  1. 1.
    Lavanchy D. The global burden of hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2009;29(Suppl 1):74–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report, 2017. 2017. ISBN: 978-92-4-156545-5.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams IT, Bell BP, Kuhnert W, Alter MJ. Incidence and transmission patterns of acute hepatitis C in the United States, 1982–2006. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:242–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pépin J, Abou Chakra CN, Pépin E, Nault V, Valiquette L. Evolution of the global burden of viral infections from unsafe medical injections, 2000–2010. PLoS One. 2014;9:e99677.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Denniston MM, Jiles RB, Drobeniuc J, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2010. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:293–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Surveillance for Acute Viral Hepatitis—United States. 2005. Accessed 29 Nov 2017.
  7. 7.
    Zibbell JE, Iqbal K, Patel RC, et al. Increases in hepatitis C virus infection related to injection drug use among persons aged ≤30 years—Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, 2006–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:453–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matthews GV, Hellard M, Kaldor J, Lloyd A, Dore GJ. Further evidence of HCV sexual transmission among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: response to Danta et al. AIDS. 2007;21:2112–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lavanchy D. Evolving epidemiology of hepatitis C virus. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:107–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dirchwolf M, Marciano S, Mauro E, et al. Clinical epidemiology of acute hepatitis C in South America. J Med Virol. 2017;89:276–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferreira A de SP, Perez R de M, Ferraz MLG, et al. Acute hepatitis C in Brazil: results of a national survey. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1738–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Negro F. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Europe. Dig Liver Dis. 2014;46(Suppl 5):S158–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boerekamps A, van den Berk G, Lauw F, Leyten EMS, Arends JE. Substantial decline in acute HCV infections among Dutch HIV+MSM after DAA roll out. In: CROI 2017; 2017. Accessed 29 Nov 2017.
  14. 14.
    van de Laar TJW, Matthews GV, Prins M, Danta M. Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: an emerging sexually transmitted infection. AIDS. 2010;24:1799–812.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dore GJ, Law M, MacDonald M, Kaldor JM. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Australia. J Clin Virol. 2003;26:171–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Law MG, Dore GJ, Bath N, et al. Modelling hepatitis C virus incidence, prevalence and long-term sequelae in Australia, 2001. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32:717–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matthews GV, Pham ST, Hellard M, et al. Patterns and characteristics of hepatitis C transmission clusters among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in the Australian trial in acute hepatitis C. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:803–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sievert W, Altraif I, Razavi HA, et al. A systematic review of hepatitis C virus epidemiology in Asia, Australia and Egypt. Liver Int. 2011;31(Suppl 2):61–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Peng J, Lu Y, Liu W, et al. Genotype distribution and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Hubei, Central China. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0137059.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mukhopadhyaya A. Hepatitis C in India. J Biosci. 2008;33:465–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Indonesia Basic Health Research 2010—GHDx. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
  22. 22.
    Mulyanto. Viral hepatitis in Indonesia: past, present, and future. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol. 2016;6:65–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ishikane M, Watanabe K, Tsukada K, et al. Acute hepatitis C in HIV-1 infected Japanese cohort: single center retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2014;9:e100517.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sun H-Y, Chang S-Y, Yang Z-Y, et al. Recent hepatitis C virus infections in HIV-infected patients in Taiwan: incidence and risk factors. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:781–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Riou J, Aït Ahmed M, Blake A, et al. Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in adults in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Viral Hepat. 2016;23:244–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liakina V, Hamid S, Tanaka J, et al. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in select countries—volume 3. J Viral Hepat. 2015;22:4–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kandeel A, Genedy M, El-Refai S, Funk AL, Fontanet A, Talaat M. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt 2015: implications for future policy on prevention and treatment. Liver Int. 2017;37:45–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rao VB, Johari N, du Cros P, Messina J, Ford N, Cooke GS. Hepatitis C seroprevalence and HIV co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:819–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sonderup MW, Afihene M, Ally R, et al. Hepatitis C in sub-Saharan Africa: the current status and recommendations for achieving elimination by 2030. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;2:910–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    European Association for Study of Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2011;55:245–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Irving WL, Salmon D, Boucher C, Hoepelman IM. Acute hepatitis C virus infection. Euro Surveill 2008;13(21). pii: 18879.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    European Association for Study of Liver. EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2016. J Hepatol. 2017;66:153–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kohli A, Shaffer A, Sherman A, Kottilil S. Treatment of hepatitis C. JAMA. 2014;312:631.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bethea E, Chen Q, Hur C, Chung RT, Chhatwal J. Should we treat acute hepatitis C? A decision and cost-effectiveness analysis. Hepatology. 2018;67:837–46. Published Online 23 Oct 2017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vogel M, Boesecke C, Rockstroh JK. Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-positive patients. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C; 2017. p. 247.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kalafateli M, Buzzetti E, Thorburn D, Davidson BR, Tsochatzis E, Gurusamy KS. Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection. In: Gurusamy KS, editor. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Chichester: Wiley; 2017. p. CD011644.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mohsen A, Bernier A, LeFouler L, et al. Hepatitis C virus acquisition among Egyptians: analysis of a 10-year surveillance of acute hepatitis C. Trop Med Int Heal. 2015;20:89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Khan AJ, Luby SP, Fikree F, et al. Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:956–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mitruka K, Tsertsvadze T, et al. Launch of a nationwide hepatitis C elimination program—Georgia, April 2015. Accessed 23 Jan 2018.
  41. 41.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis surveillance, United States, 2015. 2015. p. 25–36.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual epidemiological report 2015—hepatitis C. 2017. p. 23–6.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Razavi H, Waked I, Sarrazin C, et al. The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with today’s treatment paradigm. J Viral Hepat. 2014;21:34–59.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nelson PK, Mathers BM, Cowie B, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: results of systematic reviews. Lancet (London, England). 2011;378:571–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:558–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pomper GJ, Wu Y, Snyder EL. Risks of transfusion-transmitted infections: 2003. Curr Opin Hematol. 2003;10:412–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    World Health Organization (WHO). Global status report on blood safety and availability; 2016.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mangia A, Burra P, Ciancio A, et al. Hepatitis C infection in patients with chronic kidney disease. Int J Artif Organs. 2008;31:15–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Engel M, Malta FM, Gomes MM, et al. Acute hepatitis C virus infection assessment among chronic hemodialysis patients in the Southwest Parana State, Brazil. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pozzetto B, Memmi M, Garraud O, Roblin X, Berthelot P. Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:17265–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Inayat F, Rai AB. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter. Saudi Med J. 2016;37:93–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Frank C, Mohamed MK, Strickland GT, et al. The role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy in the spread of hepatitis C virus in Egypt. Lancet (London, England). 2000;355:887–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Elgharably A, Gomaa AI, Crossey MM, Norsworthy PJ, Waked I, Taylor-Robinson SD. Hepatitis C in Egypt—past, present, and future. Int J Gen Med. 2017;10:1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ernst E, Sherman KJ. Is acupuncture a risk factor for hepatitis? Systematic review of epidemiological studies. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;18:1231–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Moosavy SH, Davoodian P, Nazarnezhad MA, Nejatizaheh A, Eftekhar E, Mahboobi H. Epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, and outcome of hepatitis C virus infection. Electron Physician. 2017;9:5646–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Carney K, Dhalla S, Aytaman A, Tenner CT, Francois F. Association of tattooing and hepatitis C virus infection: a multicenter case-control study. Hepatology. 2013;57:2117–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chan DPC, Sun H-Y, Wong HTH, Lee S-S, Hung C-C. Sexually acquired hepatitis C virus infection: a review. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;49:47–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Terrault NA, Dodge JL, Murphy EL, et al. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: the HCV partners study. Hepatology. 2013;57:881–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Terrault NA. Sexual activity as a risk factor for hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002;36:s99–105.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ghosn J, Pierre-François S, Thibault V, et al. Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. HIV Med. 2004;5:303–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Browne R, Asboe D, Gilleece Y, et al. Increased numbers of acute hepatitis C infections in HIV positive homosexual men; is sexual transmission feeding the increase? Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:326–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Urbanus AT, van de Laar TJ, Stolte IG, et al. Hepatitis C virus infections among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: an expanding epidemic. AIDS. 2009;23:F1–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gambotti L, Batisse D, Colin-de-Verdiere N, et al. Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV positive men who have sex with men in Paris, France, 2001–2004. Euro Surveill. 2005;10:115–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wandeler G, Gsponer T, Bregenzer A, et al. Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV cohort study: a rapidly evolving epidemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1408–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hullegie SJ, van den Berk GEL, Leyten EMS, et al. Acute hepatitis C in the Netherlands: characteristics of the epidemic in 2014. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22:209.e1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yaphe S, Bozinoff N, Kyle R, Shivkumar S, Pai NP, Klein M. Incidence of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men with and without HIV infection: a systematic review. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:558–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Prasad M, Honegger J. Hepatitis C virus in pregnancy. Am J Perinatol. 2013;30:149–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Roberts EA, Yeung L. Maternal-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology. 2002;36:S106–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Benova L, Mohamoud YA, Calvert C, Abu-Raddad LJ. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:765–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yeung LTF, To T, King SM, Roberts EA. Spontaneous clearance of childhood hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:797–805.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1998;47:1–39.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smith BD, Morgan RL, Beckett GA, et al. Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 1945–1965. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2012;61:1–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Micallef JM, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ. Spontaneous viral clearance following acute hepatitis C infection: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. J Viral Hepat. 2006;13:34–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mosley JW, Operskalski EA, Tobler LH, et al. The course of hepatitis C viraemia in transfusion recipients prior to availability of antiviral therapy. J Viral Hepat. 2007;15:120–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ragonnet R, Deuffic-Burban S, Boesecke C, et al. Estimating the time to diagnosis and the chance of spontaneous clearance during acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016;4:ofw235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Grebely J, Prins M, Hellard M, et al. Hepatitis C virus clearance, reinfection, and persistence, with insights from studies of injecting drug users: towards a vaccine. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:408–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thimme R, Oldach D, Chang KM, Steiger C, Ray SC, Chisari FV. Determinants of viral clearance and persistence during acute hepatitis C virus infection. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1395–406.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Takaki A, Wiese M, Maertens G, et al. Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C. Nat Med. 2000;6:578–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shoukry NH, Grakoui A, Houghton M, et al. Memory CD8+ T cells are required for protection from persistent hepatitis C virus infection. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1645–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mehta SH, Cox A, Hoover DR, et al. Protection against persistence of hepatitis C. Lancet. 2002;359:1478–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grebely J, Conway B, Raffa JD, Lai C, Krajden M, Tyndall MW. Hepatitis C virus reinfection in injection drug users. Hepatology. 2006;44:1139–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schnuriger A, Dominguez S, Guiguet M, et al. Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients: rare spontaneous clearance correlates with weak memory CD4 T-cell responses to hepatitis C virus. AIDS. 2009;23:2079–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Simmons B, Saleem J, Hill A, Riley RD, Cooke GS. Risk of late relapse or reinfection with hepatitis C virus after achieving a sustained virological response: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:683–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ingiliz P, Martin TC, Rodger A, et al. HCV reinfection incidence and spontaneous clearance rates in HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Western Europe. J Hepatol. 2017;66:282–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Martin TCS, Martin NK, Hickman M, et al. Hepatitis C virus reinfection incidence and treatment outcome among HIV-positive MSM. AIDS. 2013;27:2551–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lanford RE, Guerra B, Chavez D, et al. Cross-genotype immunity to hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 2004;78:1575–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sacks-Davis R, Grebely J, Dore GJ, et al. Hepatitis C virus reinfection and spontaneous clearance of reinfection—the InC3 study. J Infect Dis. 2015;212:1407–19.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Aitken CK, Lewis J, Tracy SL, et al. High incidence of hepatitis C virus reinfection in a cohort of injecting drug users. Hepatology. 2008;48:1746–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Osburn WO, Fisher BE, Dowd KA, et al. Spontaneous control of primary hepatitis C virus infection and immunity against persistent reinfection. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:315–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pawlotsky J-M. Use and interpretation of virological tests for hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002;36:S65–73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Maheshwari A, Ray S, Thuluvath PJ. Acute hepatitis C. Lancet. 2008;372:321–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Blackard JT, Shata MT, Shire NJ, Sherman KE. Acute hepatitis C virus infection: a chronic problem. Hepatology. 2007;47:321–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Orland J, Wright TL, Cooper S. Acute hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2001;33:321–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Santantonio T, Medda E, Ferrari C, et al. Risk factors and outcome among a large patient cohort with community-acquired acute hepatitis C in Italy. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1154–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Colin C, Lanoir D, Touzet S, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of third-generation hepatitis C virus antibody detection assays: an analysis of the literature. J Viral Hepat. 2001;8:87–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL, Seeff LB, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology. 2009;49:1335–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Craxì A, Licata A. Acute hepatitis C: in search of the optimal approach to cure. Hepatology. 2006;43:221–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sagnelli E, Tonziello G, Pisaturo M, Sagnelli C, Coppola N. Clinical applications of antibody avidity and immunoglobulin M testing in acute HCV infection. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:1453–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Inouye S, Hasegawa A, Matsuno S, Katow S. Changes in antibody avidity after virus infections: detection by an immunosorbent assay in which a mild protein-denaturing agent is employed. J Clin Microbiol. 1984;20:525–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Coppola N, Pisapia R, Tonziello G, et al. Improvement in the aetiological diagnosis of acute hepatitis C: a diagnostic protocol based on the anti-HCV-IgM titre and IgG avidity index. J Clin Virol. 2009;46:222–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Coppola N, Pisapia R, Marrocco C, et al. Anti-HCV IgG avidity index in acute hepatitis C. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:110–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ciotti M, D’Agostini C, Marrone A. Advances in the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterol Res. 2013;6:161–70.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chevaliez S, Pawlotsky J-M. Hepatitis C virus serologic and virologic tests and clinical diagnosis of HCV-related liver disease. Int J Med Sci. 2006;3:35–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hans R, Marwaha N. Nucleic acid testing-benefits and constraints. Asian J Transf Sci. 2014;8:2–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Morota K, Fujinami R, Kinukawa H, et al. A new sensitive and automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for quantitative determination of hepatitis C virus core antigen. J Virol Methods. 2009;157:8–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chevaliez S, Soulier A, Poiteau L, Bouvier-Alias M, Pawlotsky J-M. Clinical utility of hepatitis C virus core antigen quantification in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Virol. 2014;61:145–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hullegie SJ, GeurtsvanKessel CH, van der Eijk AA, Ramakers C, Rijnders BJA. HCV antigen instead of RNA testing to diagnose acute HCV in patients treated in the Dutch acute HCV in HIV study. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20:21621.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Thomson EC, Nastouli E, Main J, et al. Delayed anti-HCV antibody response in HIV-positive men acutely infected with HCV. AIDS. 2009;23:89–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Eckels DD, Wang H, Bian TH, Tabatabai N, Gill JC. Immunobiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection: the role of CD4 T cells in HCV infection. Immunol Rev. 2000;174:90–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Thomas DL, Vlahov D, Solomon L, et al. Correlates of hepatitis C virus infections among injection drug users. Medicine (Baltimore). 1995;74:212–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Netski DM, Mosbruger T, Depla E, et al. Humoral immune response in acute hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:667–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jaeckel E, Cornberg M, Wedemeyer H, et al. Treatment of acute hepatitis C with interferon alfa-2b. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1452–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Arends JE, Lambers FAE, van der Meer JTM, et al. Treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV+ patients: Dutch recommendations for management. Neth J Med. 2011;69:43–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Boesecke C, van Assen S, Stellbrink H-J, et al. Peginterferon-alfa mono-therapy in the treatment of acute hepatitis C in HIV-infection. J Viral Hepat. 2014;21:780–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Naggie S, Marks KM, Hughes M, et al. Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin without interferon for treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-1-infected individuals: SWIFT-C. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64:1035–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rockstroh JK, Bhagani S, Hyland RH, et al. Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for 6 weeks to treat acute hepatitis C virus genotype 1 or 4 infection in patients with HIV coinfection: an open-label, single-arm trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;2:347–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Deterding K, Spinner CD, Schott E, et al. Ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir fixed-dose combination for 6 weeks in patients with acute hepatitis C virus genotype 1 monoinfection (HepNet Acute HCV IV): an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:215–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    He YL, Yang SJ, Hu CH, et al. Safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir-based treatment of acute hepatitis C in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing haemodialysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018;47:526–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Brancaccio G, Sorbo MC, Frigeri F, et al. Treatment of acute hepatitis C with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir in patients with hematological malignancies allows early re-start of chemotherapy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16:977–8. Published online 28 Nov 2017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Dutch Acute HCV in HIV Study (DAHHS-2): Grazoprevir/Elbasvir for acute HCV—full text view— Accessed 1 Feb 2018.
  121. 121.
    Nakano Y, Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T, et al. Acute hepatitis C transmitted by needlestick accident despite short duration interferon treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995;10:609–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    World Health Organization. Global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis 2016–2021. Global Hepatitis Programme Department HIV/AIDS. 2016. p. 56.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Alfaleh FZ, Nugrahini N, Matičič M, et al. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus infection disease burden—volume 3. J Viral Hepat. 2015;22:42–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    European Liver Patients Association. The 2016 Hep-CORE report. 2016.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Alavi M, Micallef M, Fortier E, et al. Effect of treatment willingness on specialist assessment and treatment uptake for hepatitis C virus infection among people who use drugs: the ETHOS study. J Viral Hepat. 2015;22:914–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Martin NK, Hickman M, Hutchinson SJ, Goldberg DJ, Vickerman P. Combination interventions to prevent HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: modeling the impact of antiviral treatment, needle and syringe programs, and opiate substitution therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:S39–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Communication strategies for the prevention of HIV, STI and hepatitis among MSM in Europe. 2016.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    World Health Organization. Guidelines for the screening care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C infection. Guidelines for the screening, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C infection. Updated version 2016. p. 140.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ward JW, Valdiserri RO, Koh HK. Hepatitis C virus prevention, care, and treatment: from policy to practice. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:S58–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joop E. Arends
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Cristina Leoni
    • 2
  • Dominique Salmon-Ceron
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Section Infectious DiseasesUniversity Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU), Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Infectious Diseases DepartmentFondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of PaviaPaviaItaly
  3. 3.Infectious Diseases Department, Hôtel Dieu HospitalUniversity of ParisParisFrance

Personalised recommendations