Advertisement

Youth Homelessness: A Global and National Analysis of Emerging Interventions for a Population at Risk

  • Lauren Kominkiewicz
  • Frances Bernard Kominkiewicz
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter analyzes national and global research and policies for serving homeless youth, including the causes and consequences of youth homelessness. The chapter will identify best practices for locating, assessing, interviewing, and intervening with homeless youth in order to meet their needs. This chapter will also help to prepare students for participating in social work research, engaging in policymaking processes, and working with agencies and organizations invested in the continued development of best practices. The information presented assists readers in becoming more well-rounded practitioners to advocate for and intervene with homeless youth.

Keywords

Youth homelessness Global youth homelessness Youth homelessness policy McKinney-Vento Act HUD Stories Homeless youth Assessment Adverse childhood experiences Ecosystems Policy Criminalization Definition Global National Youth counts Unaccompanied youth Shelter Housing First Social spaces Social media Mobile phones Trauma-informed care Substance use Strengths Abuse Research Building rapport Peer support Poverty Education LGBTQ Disabilities 

Supplementary material

441379_1_En_15_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
(DOCX 26 kb)

References

  1. Adkins, E. C., Zalta, A. K., Boley, R. A., Glover, A., Karnik, N. S., & Schueller, S. M. (2017). Exploring the potential of technology-based mental health services for homeless youth: A qualitative study. Psychological Services, 14(2), 238–245.Google Scholar
  2. Administration for Children and Families. (2016). Definitions of homelessness for federal program serving children, youth, and families. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/ecd/homelessness_definition.pdf. Accessed 1st Aug 2017.
  3. Agans, R. P., Jefferson, M. T., Bowling, J. M., Zeng, D., Yang, J., & Silverbush, M. (2014). Enumerating the hidden homeless: Strategies to estimate the homeless gone missing from a point-in-time count. Journal of Official Statistics (JOS), 30(2), 215–229.Google Scholar
  4. Altena, A. M., Brilleslijper-Kater, S. N., & Wolf, J. L. (2010). Effective interventions for homeless youth: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(6), 637–645.Google Scholar
  5. Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., et al. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174–186.Google Scholar
  6. Attar-Schwartz, S. (2013). Runaway behavior among adolescents in residential care: The role of personal characteristics, victimization experiences while in care, social climate, and institutional factors. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(2), 258–267.Google Scholar
  7. Auerswald, C., Lin, J., Petry, L., & Hyatt, S. (2013). Hidden in plain sight: An assessment of youth inclusion in Point-in-Time counts of California's unsheltered homeless population. Sacramento: California Homeless Youth Project. https://www.streetchildren.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Hidden-in-Plain-Sight_FullReportFINAL.pdf.Google Scholar
  8. Aykanian, A., & Lee, W. (2016). Social work’s role in ending the criminalization of homelessness: Opportunities for action. Social Work, 61(2), 183–185.Google Scholar
  9. Baer, J. S., Petersen, P. L., & Wells, E. A. (2004). Rationale and design of a brief substance use intervention for homeless adolescents. Addiction Research and Theory, 12(4), 317–334.Google Scholar
  10. Begun, S. (2015). The paradox of homeless youth pregnancy: A review of challenges and opportunities. Social Work in Health Care, 54(5), 444–460.Google Scholar
  11. Bender, K., Thompson, S., McManus, H., Lantry, J., & Flynn, P. (2007). Capacity for survival: Exploring strengths of homeless street youth. Child & Youth Care Forum, 36(1), 25–42.Google Scholar
  12. Bender, K., Cook, M. S., Thompson, S., Williams, T., & Windsor, L. (2010). Homeless youth: Characteristics, contributing factors, and service options. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 20(2), 193–217.Google Scholar
  13. Bender, K., Begun, S., DePrince, A., Haffejee, B., & Kaufmann, S. (2014). Utilizing technology for longitudinal communication with homeless youth. Social Work in Health Care, 53(9), 865–882.Google Scholar
  14. Bender, K., Yang, J., Ferguson, K., & Thompson, S. (2015). Experiences and needs of homeless youth with a history of foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 55, 222–231.Google Scholar
  15. Bidell, M. P. (2014). Is there an emotional cost of completing high school? Ecological factors and psychological distress among LGBT homeless youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 61(3), 366–381.Google Scholar
  16. Brakenhoff, B., Jang, B., Slesnick, N., & Snyder, A. (2015). Longitudinal predictors of homelessness: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(8), 1015–1034.Google Scholar
  17. Bruce, M., Chance, R., & Meulemans, L. (2015). Joining forces for families: An embedded response to neighborhood poverty. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE), 28(6), 750–756.Google Scholar
  18. Buckner, J. C. (2008). Understanding the impact of homelessness on children: Challenges and future research directions. American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 721–736.Google Scholar
  19. Burt, M. R. (1992). Alternative methods to estimate the number of homeless children and youth. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  20. Busch-Geertsema, V., Culhane, D., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2015). A global framework for understanding and measuring homelessness. Institute of Global Homelessness. http://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/d41ae6_97a693a1aba845058f91e9cf38f7c112.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2018.
  21. Cloke, P., Milbourne, P., & Widdowfield, R. (2001). Making the homeless count? Enumerating rough sleepers and the distortion of homelessness. Policy and Politics, 29(3), 259–279.Google Scholar
  22. Collins, P., & Barker, C. (2009). Psychological help-seeking in homeless adolescents. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 55(4), 372–384.Google Scholar
  23. Craig, T. K. J., & Hodson, S. (1998). Homeless youth in London: Childhood antecedents and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1379–1388.Google Scholar
  24. Crawford, M. (2018). Runaway sexual minority youth: Comparative analysis using Bronfenbrenner and Foucault. Theory in Action, 11(2), 51–71.Google Scholar
  25. Crosby, S. D., Hsu, H.-T., Jones, K., & Rice, E. (2018). Factors that contribute to help-seeking among homeless, trauma-exposed youth: A social-ecological perspective. Children & Youth Services Review, 93, 126–134.Google Scholar
  26. Csiernik, R., Forchuk, C., Buccieri, K., Richardson, J., Rudnick, A., Warner, L., & Wright, A. (2017). Substance use of homeless and precariously housed youth in a Canadian context. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  27. Curry, S., & Abrams, L. (2015). Housing and social support for youth aging out of foster care: State of the research literature and directions for future inquiry. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 32(2), 143–153.Google Scholar
  28. Curry, S., & Petering, R. (2017). Resident perspectives on life in a transitional living program for homeless young adults. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 34(6), 507–515.Google Scholar
  29. Curry, S. R., Rhoades, H., & Rice, E. (2016). Correlates of homeless youths’ stability-seeking behaviors online and in person. Journal of the Society for Social Work & Research, 7(1), 143–176.Google Scholar
  30. Cutuli, J. J., Steinway, C., Perlman, S., Herbers, J. E., Eyrich-Garg, K. M., & Willard, J. (2015). Youth homelessness: Prevalence and associations with weight in three regions. Health & Social Work, 40(4), 316–324.Google Scholar
  31. D’Ercole, A., & Struening, E. (1990). Victimization among homeless women: Implications for service delivery. Journal of Community Psychology, 18(2), 141–152.Google Scholar
  32. Damron, N. (2015). No place to call home: Child and youth homelessness in the United States [Poverty Fact Sheet]. Madison: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Morgridge Center for Public Service.Google Scholar
  33. De Rosa, C. J., Montgomery, S. B., Kipke, M. D., Iverson, E., Ma, J. L., & Unger, J. B. (1999). Service utilization among homeless and runaway youth in Los Angeles, California: Rates and reasons. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(6), 449–458.Google Scholar
  34. Dekel, R., Peled, E., & Spiro, S. E. (2003). Shelters for houseless youth: A follow-up evaluation. Journal of Adolescence, 26(2), 201–212.Google Scholar
  35. de la Haye, K., Green, H. J., Kennedy, D. P., Zhou, A., Golinelli, D., Wenzel, S. L., & Tucker, J. S. (2012). Who is supporting homeless youth? Predictors of support in personal networks. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(4), 604–616.Google Scholar
  36. DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., Smith, J. C., & Census Bureau, U. S. (2013). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2012. Current population reports P60-245. U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  37. Dickson-Gomez, J., Quinn, K., Johnson, A., Nowicki, K., Galletly, C., Bendixen, A., & Ko Ko, T. (2017). Identifying variability in permanent supportive housing: A comparative effectiveness approach to measuring health outcomes. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(4), 414–424.Google Scholar
  38. Dolson, M. S. (2015). Trauma, workfare and the social contingency of precarity and its sufferings: The story of Marius, a street-youth. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry: An International Journal of Cross-Cultural Health Research, 39(1), 134–161.Google Scholar
  39. Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of service providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute.Google Scholar
  40. Edidin, J., Ganim, Z., Hunter, S., & Karnik, N. (2012). The mental and physical health of homeless youth: A literature review. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43(3), 354–375.Google Scholar
  41. Every Student Succeeds Act, 42 U.S.C. § 11431 et seq.Google Scholar
  42. Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB). (2018a). Fact sheet: Runaway & homeless youth – basic center program. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fysb/basic_center_program_fact_sheet_jan_2018.pdf
  43. Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB). (2018b). Fact sheet: Runaway & homeless youth – street outreach program. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fysb/street_outreach_program_fact_sheet_jan_2018.pdf
  44. Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB). (2018c). Fact sheet: Runaway and homeless youth – transitional living program. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fysb/transitional_living_program_fact_sheet_jan_2018.pdf
  45. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.Google Scholar
  46. Freudenberger, H. J., & Torkelsen, S. E. (1984). Beyond the interpersonal: A systems model of therapeutic care for homeless children and youth. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 21(1), 132–140.Google Scholar
  47. Gattis, M. N., & Larson, A. (2017). Perceived microaggressions and mental health in a sample of black youths experiencing homelessness. Social Work Research, 41(1), 7–17.Google Scholar
  48. Gelberg, L., Leake, B. D., Lu, M. C., Andersen, R. M., Wenzel, S. L., Morgenstern, H., et al. (2001). Use of contraceptive methods among homeless women for protection against unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases: Prior use and willingness to use in the future. Contraception, 63(5), 277–281.Google Scholar
  49. Giffords, E., Alonso, C., & Bell, R. (2007). A transitional living program for homeless adolescents: A case study. Child & Youth Care Forum, 36(4), 141–151.Google Scholar
  50. Gilmer, T. P. (2016). Permanent supportive housing for transition-age youths: Service costs and fidelity to the housing first model. Psychiatric Services, 67(6), 615–621.Google Scholar
  51. Gilmer, T. P., Ojeda, V. D., Hiller, S., Stefancic, A., Tsemberis, S., & Palinkas, L. A. (2013). Variations in full service partnerships and fidelity to the Housing First model. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 16(4), 313–328.Google Scholar
  52. Glassman, M., Karno, D., & Erdem, G. (2010). The problems and barriers of RHYA as social policy. Children & Youth Services Review, 32(6), 798–806.Google Scholar
  53. Gomez, R., & Ryan, T. (2016). Speaking out: Youth led research as a methodology used with homeless youth. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 33(2), 185–193.Google Scholar
  54. Greene, J. M., & Ringwalt, C. L. (1998). Pregnancy among three national samples of runaway and homeless youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 23(6), 370–377.Google Scholar
  55. Gulcur, L., Stefancic, A., Shinn, M., Tsemberis, S., & Fischer, S. N. (2003). Housing, hospitalization, and cost outcomes for homeless individuals with psychiatric disabilities participating in Continuum of Care and Housing First programmes. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 13, 171–186.Google Scholar
  56. Guo, X., & Slesnick, N. (2017). Reductions in hard drug use among homeless youth receiving a strength-based outreach intervention: Comparing the long-term effects of shelter linkage versus drop-in center linkage. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(7), 905–915.Google Scholar
  57. Haley, N., Roy, E., Leclerc, P., Boudreau, J. F., & Boivin, J. F. (2004). HIV risk profile of male street youth involved in survival sex. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(6), 526–530.Google Scholar
  58. Harris, T., Rice, E., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., & Wenzel, S. (2017). Gender differences in the path from sexual victimization to HIV risk behavior among homeless youth. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 26(3), 334–351.Google Scholar
  59. Heerde, J. A., & Hemphill, S. A. (2016). Sexual risk behaviors, sexual offenses, and sexual victimization among homeless youth. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 17(5), 468–489.Google Scholar
  60. Heerde, J. A., Scholes-Balog, K. E., & Hemphill, S. A. (2015). Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: A systematic literature review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(1), 181–212.Google Scholar
  61. Hodgson, K. J., Shelton, K. H., & van den Bree, M. B. M. (2015). Psychopathology among young homeless people: Longitudinal mental health outcomes for different subgroups. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(3), 307–325.Google Scholar
  62. Holtschneider, C. (2016). From independence to interdependence: Redefining outcomes for transitional living programs for youth experiencing homelessness. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 97(3), 160–170.Google Scholar
  63. Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing (HEARTH) Act, enacted as part of the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act (42 U.S.C. § 11302).Google Scholar
  64. Horwitz, B., Hinsz, J., Karczmar, A., Matjasko, J. L., Patel, S., & Vidis, J. (2018). Conducting a youth count: A toolkit (2nd ed.). Chicago: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. http://voicesofyouthcount.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Voices-of-Youth-Count-Toolkit-2018-FINAL.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2019.Google Scholar
  65. Jennings, L., Lee, N., Shore, D., Strohminger, N., Allison, B., Conserve, D. F., & Cheskin, L. J. (2016). U.S. minority homeless youth’s access to and use of mobile phones: Implications for mHealth intervention design. Journal of Health Communication, 21(7), 725–733.Google Scholar
  66. Jocoy, C. L. (2013). Counting the homeless: The culture of quantification in American social policy. Cultural Geographies, 20(3), 397–403.Google Scholar
  67. Kennelly, J. (2015). ‘You’re making our city look bad’: Olympic security, neoliberal urbanization, and homeless youth. Ethnography, 16(1), 3–24.Google Scholar
  68. Kennelly, J. (2017). Symbolic violence and the Olympic Games: Low-income youth, social legacy commitments, and urban exclusion in Olympic host cities. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(2), 145–161.Google Scholar
  69. Kennelly, J., & Watt, P. (2011). Sanitizing public space in Olympic host cities: The spatial experiences of marginalized youth in 2010 Vancouver and 2012 London. Sociology, 45(5), 765–781.Google Scholar
  70. Keuroghlian, A. S., Shtasel, D., & Bassuk, E. L. (2014). Out on the street: A public health and policy agenda for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are homeless. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(1), 66–72.Google Scholar
  71. Kidd, S. A., & Scrimenti, K. (2004). Evaluating children and youth homelessness. Evaluation Review, 28(4), 325–341.Google Scholar
  72. Kidd, S., Frederick, T., Karabanow, J., Hughes, J., Naylor, T., & Barbic, S. (2016). A mixed methods study of recently homeless youth efforts to sustain housing and stability. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 33(3), 207–218.Google Scholar
  73. Kidd, S. A., Vitopoulos, N., Frederick, T., Leon, S., Karabanow, J., & McKenzie, K. (2019). More than four walls and a roof needed: A complex tertiary prevention approach for recently homeless youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry., 89(2), 248–257.Google Scholar
  74. Kim, S. (2014). A review of research on runaway and homeless youth: A comparison of trends between American and South Korean journals from 2001 to 2010. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 31(2), 107–118.Google Scholar
  75. Kingree, J. B., Stephens, T., Braithwaite, R., & Griffin, J. (1999). Predictors of homelessness among participants in a substance abuse treatment program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69(2), 261–266.Google Scholar
  76. Kipke, M. D., Simon, T. R., Montgomery, S. B., Unger, J. B., & Iversen, E. F. (1997). Homeless youth and their exposure to and involvement in violence while living on the streets. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20(5), 360–367.Google Scholar
  77. Koller, S. H., Raffaelli, M., & Carlo, G. (2012). Conducting research about sensitive subjects: The case of homeless youth. Universitas Psychologica, 11(1), 55–65.Google Scholar
  78. Kominkiewicz, F. B. (2008). Freeing children to tell their stories: The utilization of person-centered and experiential psychotherapy in child welfare investigations. In M. Behr & J. Cornelius-White (Eds.), Person-centered work with children, adolescents, parents and families. Herefordshire: PCCS Books Ltd..Google Scholar
  79. Kominkiewicz, F. B., & Kominkiewicz, L. K. (2008). The dynamics and ethics of community focus groups: Exploring the social justice issues of homeless youth/Die Dynamik und Ethik von Fokusgruppen in der Gemeinwesenarbeit, die sich mit dem Thema sozialer Gerechtigkeit für obdachlose Jugendliche auseinandersetzen. In 30th international symposium of the association of social work with groups conference paper publication (CD). Cologne.Google Scholar
  80. Kroner, M. J. (1988). Living arrangement options for young people preparing for independent living. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 67(6), 547–561.Google Scholar
  81. Levenson, J. (2017). Trauma-informed social work practice. Social Work, 62(2), 105–113.Google Scholar
  82. Lightfoot, M., Stein, J. A., Tevendale, H., & Preston, K. (2011). Protective factors associated with fewer multiple problem behaviors among homeless/runaway youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(6), 878–889.Google Scholar
  83. Lim, C., Rice, E., & Rhoades, H. (2016). Depressive symptoms and their association with adverse environmental factors and substance use in runaway and homeless youths. Journal of Research on Adolescence (Wiley-Blackwell), 26(3), 403–417.Google Scholar
  84. Lyon-Callo, V. (2000). Medicalizing homelessness: The production of self-blame and self-governing within homeless shelters. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 14(3), 328–345.Google Scholar
  85. Mallett, S., Rosenthal, D., Myers, P., Milburn, N., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2004). Practicing homelessness: A typology approach to young people’s daily routines. Journal of Adolescence, 27(3), 337–349.Google Scholar
  86. McAlpine, K., Henley, R., Mueller, M., & Vetter, S. (2010). A survey of street children in Northern Tanzania: How abuse or support factors may influence migration to the street. Community Mental Health Journal, 46(1), 26–32.Google Scholar
  87. McNamara, R. H., Crawford, C., & Burns, R. (2013). Policing the homeless: Policy, practice, and perceptions. Policing: An International Journal, 36(2), 357–374.Google Scholar
  88. Meade, M. A., & Slesnick, N. (2002). Ethical considerations for research and treatment with runaway and homeless adolescents. The Journal of Psychology, 136(4), 449–463.Google Scholar
  89. Meadows-Oliver, M. (2006). Homeless adolescent mothers: A metasynthesis of their life experiences. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 21(5), 340–349.Google Scholar
  90. Middleton, J. S., Gattis, M. N., Frey, L. M., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2018). Youth Experiences Survey (YES): Exploring the scope and complexity of sex trafficking in a sample of youth experiencing homelessness. Journal of Social Service Research, 44(2), 141–157.Google Scholar
  91. Morton, M. H., Dworsky, A., Matjasko, J. L., Curry, S. R., Schlueter, D., Chávez, R., & Farrell, A. F. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of youth homelessness in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(1), 14–21.Google Scholar
  92. Naidich, W. B., & Covenant House Nineline. (1988). The host homes model of temporary emergency shelter. New York: Covenant House.Google Scholar
  93. National Center for Homeless Education. (2013). Housing and education collaborations to serve homeless children, youth, and families. Best practices in interagency collaboration brief series. National center for homeless education at SERVE. National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE. https://nche.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/hud.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2019.
  94. National Center for Homeless Education. (2016). Federal data summary: School years 2012–13 to 2014–15: Education for homeless children and youth. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Accessed 11 Mar 2019.Google Scholar
  95. National Conference of State Legislatures. (2016). Homeless and runaway youth. http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/homeless-and-runaway-youth.aspx. Accessed 30 June 2018.
  96. National Network for Youth (NN4Y). (2019). Public policy. https://www.nn4youth.org/policy-advocacy/public-policy/fed-definitions-homeless-youth/#_ftn1. Accessed 11 Mar 2019.
  97. Okamoto, Y. (2007). A comparative study of homelessness in the United Kingdom and Japan. Journal of Social Issues, 63(3), 525–542.Google Scholar
  98. Parker, S., & Mayock, P. (2019). “They’re Always Complicated but That’s the Meaning of Family in My Eyes”: Homeless youth making sense of “family” and family relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 40(4), 540–570.Google Scholar
  99. Parks, R. W., Stevens, R. J., & Spence, S. A. (2007). A systematic review of cognition in homeless children and adolescents. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 100(1), 46–50.Google Scholar
  100. Pavlakis, A. (2014). Living and learning at the intersection: Student homelessness and complex policy environments. Urban Review, 46(3), 445–475.Google Scholar
  101. Pears, J., & Noller, P. (1995). Youth homelessness: Abuse, gender, and the process of adjustment to life on the streets. Australian Journal of Social Issues (Australian Council of Social Service), 30(4), 405–424.Google Scholar
  102. Popple, P., & Leighninger, L. (2019). The policy-based profession: An introduction to social welfare policy analysis for social workers (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  103. Quimby, E. G., Edidin, J. P., Ganim, Z., Gustafson, E., Hunter, S. J., & Karnik, N. S. (2012). Psychiatric disorders and substance use in homeless youth: A preliminary comparison of San Francisco and Chicago. Behavioral Sciences (2076-328X), 2(3), 186–194.Google Scholar
  104. Ray, N. (2006). An epidemic of homelessness: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  105. Rew, L., Chambers, K. B., & Kulkarni, S. (2002). Planning a sexual health promotion intervention with homeless adolescents. Nursing Research, 51(3), 168–174.Google Scholar
  106. Rhule-Louie, D., Bowen, S., Baer, J., & Peterson, P. (2008). Substance use and health and safety among homeless youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17(3), 306–319.Google Scholar
  107. Rice, E., & Barman, A. A. (2014). Internet and social media use as a resource among homeless youth. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(2), 232–247.Google Scholar
  108. Robertson, M. J., & Toro, P. A. (1999). Homeless youth: Research, intervention, and policy. In L. B. Fosburg & D. L. Dennis (Eds.), Practical lessons: The 1998 National Symposium on Homelessness Research (pp. 3–1-3-32). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  109. Robinson, B. A. (2018). Child welfare systems and LGBTQ youth homelessness: Gender segregation, instability, and intersectionality. Child Welfare, 96(2), 29–45.Google Scholar
  110. Rosenthal, D., Mallett, S., & Myers, P. (2006). Why do homeless young people leave home? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 30(3), 281–285.Google Scholar
  111. Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, as amended and reauthorized by Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act, 42 U.S.C. § 5701 et seq.Google Scholar
  112. Saewyc, E. M., & Edinburgh, L. D. (2010). Restoring healthy developmental trajectories for sexually exploited young runaway girls: Fostering protective factors and reducing risk behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 180–188.Google Scholar
  113. Saldanha, K. (2017). It should not be a pit stop: Voices and perspectives of homeless youth on labeling and placement in special education. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(2), 55–73.Google Scholar
  114. Saperstein, A. M., Lee, S., Ronan, E. J., Seeman, R. S., & Medalia, A. (2014). Cognitive deficit and mental health in homeless transition-age youth. Pediatrics, 134(1), e138–e145.Google Scholar
  115. Schneider, M., Brisson, D., & Burnes, D. (2016). Do we really know how many are homeless?: An analysis of the point-in-time homelessness count. Families in Society, 97(4), 321–329.Google Scholar
  116. Sheffield, J. J. (2015). Homeless Bills of Rights: Moving United States policy toward a human right to housing. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy, 22(2), 321–353.Google Scholar
  117. Slesnick, N., & Prestopnik, J. L. (2005). Ecologically based family therapy outcome with substance abusing runaway adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28(2), 277–298.Google Scholar
  118. Slesnick, N., Kang, M. J., Bonomi, A. E., & Prestopnik, J. L. (2008). Six- and twelve-month outcomes among homeless youth accessing therapy and case management services through an urban drop-in center. Health Services Research, 43(1), 211–229.Google Scholar
  119. Slesnick, N., Guo, X., Brakenhoff, B., & Bantchevska, D. (2015). A comparison of three interventions for homeless youth evidencing substance use disorders: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 54, 1–13.Google Scholar
  120. Slesnick, N., Feng, X., Guo, X., Brakenhoff, B., Carmona, J., Murnan, A., et al. (2016a). A test of outreach and drop-in linkage versus shelter linkage for connecting homeless youth to services. Prevention Science, 17(4), 450–460.Google Scholar
  121. Slesnick, N., Zhang, J., & Brakenhoff, B. (2016b). Homeless youths’ caretakers: The mediating role of childhood abuse on street victimization and housing instability. Social Work, 61(2), 147–154.Google Scholar
  122. Sommer, V.L. (1995). The ecological perspective. In M.J. Macy, N. Flax, V.L. Sommer, & R. Stoessen (2004, July). Collaborating with faith-based services. NASW News, p. 4.Google Scholar
  123. Stefancic, A., & Tsemberis, S. (2007). Housing First for long-term shelter dwellers with psychiatric disabilities in a suburban county: A four-year study of housing access and retention. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(3–4), 265–279.Google Scholar
  124. Stone, S., & Uretsky, M. (2016). School correlates of academic behaviors and performance among McKinney–Vento identified youth. Urban Education, 51(6), 600–628.Google Scholar
  125. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Trauma-informed care in behavioral health services: Treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series 57 [HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4801]. Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
  126. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences. https://www.samhsa.gov/capt/practicing-effective-prevention/prevention-behavioral-health/adverse-childhood-experiences. Last updated July 9, 2018.
  127. Sullivan-Walker, M. E., Rock, M. L., & Popp, P. A. (2017). Meeting the needs of students with disabilities experiencing homelessness: Federal, community, and educator roles. Preventing School Failure, 61(2), 155–162.Google Scholar
  128. Suppes, M. A., & Wells, C. C. (2018). The social work experience: A case-based introduction to social work and social welfare. New York: Pearson.Google Scholar
  129. Thomas de Benitez, S., & Jones, G. A. (n.d.). Youth and the United Nations: Briefing note on youth on the streets. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/briefingnotestreetyouth.pdf. Accessed 30 June 2018.
  130. Thompson, S., Kim, J., McManus, H., Flynn, P., & Kim, H. (2007). Peer relationships: A comparison of homeless youth in the USA and South Korea. International Social Work, 50(6), 783–795.Google Scholar
  131. Thompson, S. J., Bender, K. A., Lewis, C. M., & Watkins, R. (2008). Runaway and pregnant: Risk factors associated with pregnancy in a national sample of runaway/homeless female adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(2), 125–132.Google Scholar
  132. Thompson, S. J., Bender, K., Windsor, L., Cook, M. S., & Williams, T. (2010). Homeless youth: Characteristics, contributing factors, and service options. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 20(2), 193–217.Google Scholar
  133. Thompson, S. J., Bender, K., Ferguson, K. M., & Kim, Y. (2015). Factors associated with substance use disorders among traumatized homeless youth. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 15(1), 66–89.Google Scholar
  134. Townley, G., Pearson, L., Lehrwyn, J. M., Prophet, N. T., & Trauernicht, M. (2016). Utilizing participatory mapping and GIS to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57(3/4), 404–414.Google Scholar
  135. Tucker, J. S., Sussell, J., Golinelli, D., Zhou, A., Kennedy, D. P., & Wenzel, S. L. (2012). Understanding pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors: A mixed-methods study of homeless youth. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 44(4), 252–261.Google Scholar
  136. Tyler, K. A., & Schmitz, R. M. (2018). Child abuse, mental health and sleeping arrangements among homeless youth: Links to physical and sexual street victimization. Children and Youth Services Review, 95, 327–333.Google Scholar
  137. Tyler, K. A., Schmitz, R. M., & Ray, C. M. (2018). Role of social environmental protective factors on anxiety and depressive symptoms among midwestern homeless youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence (Wiley-Blackwell), 28(1), 199–210.Google Scholar
  138. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). (2012). HUD exchange. Introductory Guide to the Continuum of Care (CoC) Program: 2012 Understanding the CoC Program and the requirements of the CoC Program Interim Rule https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/CoCProgramIntroductoryGuide.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2019.
  139. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). (2018). The 2018 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. Part 1: Point-in-time estimates of homelessness. Washington, D.C.: Office of Community Planning and Development.Google Scholar
  140. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). (2019). HUD Exchange. Continuum of Care (CoC) Program Eligibility Requirements. https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/coc/coc-program-eligibility-requirements
  141. U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness. (2015). Opening doors: Federal strategic plan to end homelessness. https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/USICH_OpeningDoors_Amendment2015_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2019.
  142. United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. (2012). Protection and promotion of the rights of children working and/or living on the street . http://www.streetchildrenresources.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/OHCHR-protection-promotion.pdf. Accessed 30 June 2018.Google Scholar
  143. van den Bree, M. B. M., Shelton, K., Bonner, A., Moss, S., Thomas, H., & Taylor, P. J. (2009). A longitudinal population-based study of factors in adolescence predicting homelessness in young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(6), 571–578.Google Scholar
  144. Violence Against Women Act, 42 U.S.C. § 13701 et seq.Google Scholar
  145. Vitopoulos, N., Cerswell Kielburger, L., Frederick, T. J., McKenzie, K., & Kidd, S. (2017). Developing a trauma-informed mental health group intervention for youth transitioning from homelessness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 48(6), 499–509.Google Scholar
  146. Washington State Department of Commerce. (2017). Research and recommendations on host home programs report on host home licensing exemption per RCW 74.15.020 and RCW 24.03.550. http://www.commerce.wa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Commerce-Host-Homes-Report-2017.pdf. Accessed 29 Mar 2019.
  147. Whitbeck, L. B., & Simons, R. L. (1993). A comparison of adaptive strategies and patterns of victimization among homeless adolescents and adults. Violence and Victims, 8(2), 135–152.Google Scholar
  148. Whitbeck, L. B., Johnson, K. D., Hoyt, D. R., & Cauce, A. M. (2004). Mental disorder and comorbidity among runaway and homeless adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 132–140.Google Scholar
  149. Wong, C. F., Clark, L. F., & Marlotte, L. (2016). The impact of specific and complex trauma on the mental health of homeless youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(5), 831–854.Google Scholar
  150. Wright, J. D., & Devine, J. A. (1995). Housing dynamics of the homeless: Implications for a count. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65(3), 320–329.Google Scholar
  151. Yoder, J. R., Bender, K., Thompson, S. J., Ferguson, K. M., & Haffejee, B. (2014). Explaining homeless youths’ criminal justice interactions: Childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets? Community Mental Health Journal, 50(2), 135–144.Google Scholar
  152. Yoshioka-Maxwell, A., & Rice, E. (2017). Exploring the impact of network characteristics on substance use outcomes among homeless former foster youth. International Journal of Public Health, 62(3), 371–378.Google Scholar
  153. Yoshioka-Maxwell, A., & Rice, E. (2019). Exploring the relationship between foster care experiences and HIV risk behaviors among a sample of homeless former foster youth. AIDS & Behavior, 23(3), 792–801.Google Scholar
  154. Zerger, S., Strehlow, A. J., & Gundlapalli, A. V. (2008). Homeless young adults and behavioral health: An overview. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(6), 824–841.Google Scholar
  155. Zhang, J., & Slesnick, N. (2018). Substance use and social stability of homeless youth: A comparison of three interventions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32(8), 873–884.Google Scholar
  156. Zhao, Q., Kim, B. K. E., Li, W., Hsiao, H.-Y., & Rice, E. (2018). Incarceration history, social network composition, and substance use among homeless youth in Los Angeles. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2018.1545555Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren Kominkiewicz
    • 1
  • Frances Bernard Kominkiewicz
    • 2
  1. 1.Children’s Legal Services of San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Saint Mary’s CollegeNotre DameUSA

Personalised recommendations