The Counter-Trafficking in Persons’ Architecture in Kenya: A Security Governance Perspective

  • Michael Omondi Owiso
Part of the Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development book series (AAESPD)


The many and nuanced strategies adopted by human traffickers have rendered the management of the crime to require complexity in the way it is being approached. This is because of the inner workings and the multiplicity of actors, individuals, governments, nongovernmental organisations and criminal networks, traffickers, transnational entities as well as the international community, which in diverse ways either perpetuate it or work towards managing it. Because of this, a study into human trafficking calls for an all-encompassing approach. This contribution looks into the actors and institutions involved in human trafficking in Kenya from a security governance perspective and interrogates the realities, interventions and gaps in the measures against the crime. It contends that although strategies have been put in place to manage the crime, there still exist loopholes which lead to inadequacy. Further, from a security governance perspective, the interventions in place also reveal gaps in the prosecution, protection, prevention and partnership in the fight against human trafficking.


  1. Adepoju, A. (2005). Review of research and data on human trafficking in sub-Saharan Africa. International Migration, 43, 75–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buzan, B., Waever, O., & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A new framework for analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  3. Cho, S. Y. (2015). Evaluating policies against human trafficking worldwide: An overview and review of the 3P index. Journal of Human Trafficking, 1(1), 86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Feingold, D. A. (2005). Human trafficking. Foreign Policy, 150, 26–32.Google Scholar
  5. Friesendorf, C. (2007). Pathologies of security governance: Efforts against human trafficking in Europe. Security Dialogue, 38(3), 379–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gastrow, P. (2011). Termites at work: Transnational organized crime and state erosion in Kenya. New York: International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  7. International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2005). Programme overview. Regional Office for Eastern and Horn of Africa.
  8. International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2010, October 28). IOM welcomes passage of Kenya’s 2010 counter trafficking in persons act.
  9. International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2015). Migration in Kenya: A country profile 2015. Nairobi: IOM.
  10. International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2016a). 2016–2019: IOM regional strategy – East and Horn of Africa. Nairobi: Regional Office for East and Horn of Africa. file://
  11. International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2016b, n.d.). Improving the capacity of the government of Kenya in counter-trafficking.
  12. Jesionka, N. (2017, n.d.). What’s being done to stop human trafficking? The Muse. Daily Muse Inc.
  13. Krahmann, E. (2003). Conceptualizing security governance. Cooperation and Conflict, 38(1), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liao, D. (2012). Security governance: An alternative paradigm? International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 2(1), 17–23.Google Scholar
  15. National Crime Research Centre (NCRC). (2014). Human trafficking in Kenya. Nairobi: National Crime Research Centre.
  16. National Crime Research Centre (NCR). (2015). Human trafficking in Kenya. Retrieved July 15, 2017, from
  17. National Police Service (NPS). (2015). Crime situation report, Nairobi.
  18. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). (2014). Human rights and human trafficking. Fact Sheet No. 36. New York/Geneva: United Nations.
  19. Owiso, M. (2016). Elided populations: A baseline survey report on human trafficking in Kenya. International Rescue Committee (IRC) Report, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  20. Republic of Kenya. (2012 [2010]). Counter-Trafficking in Person Act No. 12 of 2012 [Act No. 8 of 2010]. Nairobi: Government Printer.
  21. Republic of Kenya. (2013). The national plan of action for combating human trafficking: Strategic framework: 2013–2017. Kenya Vision 2030, Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Services.
  22. Šulović, V. (2010). Meaning of security and theory of securitization. Belgrade Centre for Security Policy.
  23. UNICEF. (2003). Trafficking in human beings, especially women and children in Africa. Innocenti Insight. Innocenti Research Center.Google Scholar
  24. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODOC). (2011, n.d.). UNODOC launches first global database of human trafficking cases.
  25. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2012). Human trafficking: Organized crime and the multibillion dollar sale of people. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Omondi Owiso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political Science, School of Development and Strategic StudiesMaseno UniversityMasenoKenya

Personalised recommendations