Advertisement

Introduction: The Significance of Cultural Diversity on Peace-Building in Divided Societies

  • Cathy Bollaert
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Compromise after Conflict book series (PSCAC)

Abstract

This chapter introduces the main thesis of this book, i.e. the impact that identity and different interpretations of reality (worldviews) have on building a sustainable peace in societies emerging from conflict. It argues that competing worldviews are a significant, and often underappreciated, contributor to conflict and a barrier to their successful solution. For peace-building interventions to become sustainable worldview needs to be taken into consideration or it can risk hardening intergroup boundaries and the use of lethal violence. The chapter also introduces the South African case study and provides notes on the methodology underpinning the research informing this book.

Keywords

South africa Sustainable peace Worldview Intergroup conflict Culture 

References

  1. Alvesson, Mats, and Kaj Skoldberg. 2009. Reflexive methodology: New vistas for qualitiative research. Thousand Oaks, CA, London, New Delhi, and Singapore: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Amisi, Baruti, Patrick Bond, Nokuthula Cele, and Trevor Ngwane. 2011. Xenophobia and civil society: Durban’s structured social divisions. Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies 38 (1): 59–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amnesty International. 2015. South Africa: Suspend those behind the Marikana killings and subsequent cover-up. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/08/south-africa-suspend-those-behind-the-marikana-killings-and-subsequent-cover-up/. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  4. Arthur, Paige. 2011a. Introduction: Identities in transition. In Identities in transition: Challenges for transitional justice in divided societies, ed. Paige Arthur, 1–16. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Arthur, Paige. 2011b. Identities in transition: Challenges for transitional justice in divided societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Atran, Scott. 2010. Talking to the enemy: Violent extremism, sacred values, and what it means to be human. Bristol and New York: Allen Lane and HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  7. Avruch, Kevin. 1998. Culture and conflict resolution. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  8. BBC News. 2015. Xenophobic violence: South Africa’s identity crisis. BBC, May 7. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-32580807. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  9. Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann. 1966. The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  10. Burbidge, Matthew. 2012. Gallery refuses to remove ‘spear of the nation’ artwork. Mail & Guardian Online, May 17. http://mg.co.za/article/2012-05-17-anc-irate-over-spear-of-the-nation-artwork. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  11. Charmaz, Kathy. 2008a. Grounded theory. In Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods, ed. Jonathan A. Smith, 81–110. London and Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Charmaz, Kathy. 2008b. Grounded theory in the 21st century: Applications for advancing social justice studies. In Strategies of qualitative inquiry, 3rd ed., ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, 203–241. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, Mary E. 1989. Ariandne’s thread: The search for new modes of thinking. Hampshire and London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davies, Nick. 2015. The savage truth behind the Marikana massacre. Mail & Guardian Online, May 22. http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/marikana-massacre-16-august-2012. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  15. Department of Justice and Constitutional Development. 1995. Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act 34 of 1995. http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/1995-034.pdf. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  16. Dixon, Bill. 2013. Marikana, social inequality and the relative autonomy of the police. SA Crime Quarterly 46: 5–11.Google Scholar
  17. Doe, Samuel Gbaydee. 2009. Indigenizing post-conflict state reconstruction in Africa: A conceptual framework. Africa Peace and Conflict Journal 2 (1): 1–16.Google Scholar
  18. Essa, Azad. 2014. Why aren’t South Africa’s born frees voting? Al Jazeera, May 7. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/05/why-aren-south-africa-born-frees-voting-20145617536762389.html. Accessed 26 August 2018.
  19. Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Fontana Press.Google Scholar
  20. Goffman, Erving. 1986. Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Boston: North Eastern University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Guba, Egon G., and Yvonna S. Lincoln. 1998. Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In The landscape of qualitative research: Theories and issues, ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, 195–220. Thousand Oaks, London, and New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Hamber, Brandon. 2012. Transitional justice and intergroup conflict. In Oxford handbook of intergroup conflict, ed. Linda Tropp, 328–343. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Huyse, Luc, and Mark Salter. 2008. Traditional justice and reconciliation after violent conflict: Learning from African experiences. Stockholm: International IDEA.Google Scholar
  24. International Center for Transitional Justice. 2009. What is transitional justice? https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Global-Transitional-Justice-2009-English.pdf. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  25. Kelsall, Tim. 2009. Culture under cross-examination: International justice and the special court for Sierra Leone. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. 2004. The psychology of worldviews. Review of General Psychology 8 (1): 3–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krog, Antjie. 2008a. ‘…if it means he gets his humanity back…’: The worldview underpinning the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Journal of Multicultural Discourses 3 (3): 204–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krog, Antjie. 2008b. ‘My heart is on my tongue’: The untranslated self in a translated world. Journal of Analytical Psychology 53: 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lundy, Patricia, and Mark Mcgovern. 2008. Whose justice? Rethinking transitional justice from the bottom up. Journal of Law and Society 35 (2): 265–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mac Ginty, Roger. 2014. Everyday peace: Bottom-up and local agency in conflict-affected societies. Security Dialogue 45 (6): 548–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mashele, Prince, and Mzukisi Qobo. 2014. The fall of the ANC: What next? Johannesburg: Picador Africa.Google Scholar
  32. Mattes, Robert. 2011. The ‘born frees’: The prospects for generational change in post-Apartheid South Africa. Working Paper No. 131. Afrobarometer.Google Scholar
  33. May, Jackie, and Andrea Nagel. 2012. Ban the spear, stone its maker. Times Live, May 22. http://www.timeslive.co.za/politics/2012/05/22/ban-the-spear-stone-its-maker. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  34. McEvoy, Kieran. 2007. Beyond legalism: Towards a thicker understanding of transitional justice. Journal of Law and Society 4 (4): 411–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McEvoy, Kieran, and Lorna McGregor. 2008. Transitional justice from below: Grassroots activism and the struggle for change. Portland, OR: Hart.Google Scholar
  36. McKaiser, Eusebius. 2014. Could I vote DA?: A voter’s dilemma. Johannesburg: Bookstorm.Google Scholar
  37. Merry, Sally Engle. 2006. Human rights and gender violence: Translating international law into local justice. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mruck, Katja, and Gunter Mey. 2007. Grounded theory and reflexivity. In The SAGE handbook of grounded theory, ed. Antony Bryant and Kathy Charmaz, 515–538. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi, and Singapore: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. News24.com. 2015. Thousands mob KwaMashu police as xenophobic attacks continue. Mail & Guardian Online, April 13. http://mg.co.za/article/2015-04-13-thousands-mob-kwamashu-police-as-xenophobic-attacks-continue. Accessed 23 August 2018.
  40. Northrup, Terrell A. 1989. The dynamic of identity in personal and social conflict. In Intractable conflicts and their transformation, ed. Louis Kriesberg, Terrell A. Northrup, and Stuart J. Thorson, 68–76. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Olsen, Tricia D., Leigh A. Payne, and Andrew G. Reiter. 2010. Transitional justice in the balance: Comparing processes, weighing efficacy. Washington, DC: United Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  42. Palmer, Nicola, Briony Jones, and Julia Viebach. 2015. Introduction: Ways of knowing atrocity: A methodological enquiry into the formulation, implementation, and assessment of transitional justice. Canadian Journal of Law and Society 30 (2): 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Palmery, Ingrid, Brandon Hamber, and Lorena Núñez. 2015. Healing and change in the city of gold: Case studies of coping and support in Johannesburg. Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pattman, Rob, and Sultan Khan. 2007. Undressing Durban: Beyond the tourist gaze. Durban: Madiba Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Roht-Arriaza, Naomi, and Javier Mariezcurrena. 2006. Transitional justice in the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ross, Marc Howard. 2007. Cultural contestation in ethnic conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ross, Marc Howard. 2009. Cultural contestation and the symbolic landscape: Politics by other means? In Culture and belonging in societies: Contestation and symbolic landscapes, ed. Marc Howard Ross, 1–23. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  48. Schulz-Herzenberg, Collette. 2014. The influence of the social context on South African voters. Journal of Southern African Studies 40 (4): 839–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwartz, Shalom H. 1999. A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology 48 (1): 23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shaw, Rosalind, and Lars Waldorf. 2010. Introduction: Localizing transitional justice. In Localizing transitional justice: Interventions and priorities after mass violence, ed. Rosalind Shaw and Lars Waldorf with Pierre Hazan, 3–26. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Smyth, Marie, and Gillian Robinson. 2001. Researching violently divided societies: Ethical and methodological issues. New York: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sriram, Chandra Lekha. 2007. Justice as peace? Liberal peacebuilding and strategies of transitional justice. Global Society 21 (4): 579–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sriram, Chandra Lekha. 2012. Post-conflict justice and hybridity in peacebuilding: Resistance or cooptation? In Hybrid forms of peace: From everyday agency to post-liberalism, ed. Oliver P. Richmond and Audra Mitchell, 58–72. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Terreblanche, Sampie. 2002. A history of inequality in South Africa: 1652–2002. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.Google Scholar
  55. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa. 1998. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, volume 1. Cape Town: Juta.Google Scholar
  56. Underhill, Glynnis. 2014. Ramphele and Zille’s brief DA marriage over. Mail & Guardian Online, February 2. http://mg.co.za/article/2014-02-02-ramphele-and-zilles-da-marriage-over. Accessed 26 August 2018.
  57. United Nations Security Council. 2001. Statement by the President of the Security Council: Peace-building: Towards a comprehensive approach. S/PRST/2001/5.Google Scholar
  58. Weinstein, Harvey M. 2011. The myth of closure, the illusion of reconciliation: Final thoughts on five years as co-editor-in-chief. International Journal of Transitional Justice 5: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wicks, Jeff. 2015. Several dead as xenophobic violence boils over in Durban. Mail & Guardian Online, April 14. http://mg.co.za/article/2015-04-14-several-dead-as-xenophobic-violence-boils-over-in-durban. Accessed 23 August 2018.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cathy Bollaert
    • 1
  1. 1.Ulster UniversityBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations