Current Perspectives on the Novel Structures and Antioxidant Properties of Mangrove Endophytic Fungal Exopolysaccharides
Mangrove ecosystems are inhabited by diverse fungal endophytic communities, one of nature’s treasures of the marine biotope. Mangrove fungi comprise mostly marine fungi, and the small group of terrestrial fungi can be classified into saprophytic, parasitic, and symbiotic fungi. Fungi produce high-molecular-weight exopolysaccharides (EPSs) during their metabolic process, which plays a main role in biofilm formation and in the localization of biogeochemical processes within aggregates and sediments. In recent years, marine microbial EPSs gained momentum particularly those originating from mangrove fungi due to a specific marine environment. Mangrove fungal EPSs with unique chemical composition, diversity of structures, and properties were reportedly suitable for biotechnological applications, viz. as natural antioxidants, anticancer drugs, biosorbents, and antimicrobial agents. Knowledge of the structural characterization of EPSs could be essential to understanding the structure–function relationship of molecules. This review emphasizes the diversity of mangrove fungi and the composition, structure, and antioxidant potential of mangrove fungal EPSs.
KeywordsMangroves Endophytic fungi Exopolysaccharides Antioxidant potential
The author gratefully acknowledges UGC, Government of India, for its financial support in the form of UGC-CSIR-SRF under Grant F.No. 19-1/2015(SA-1).
- Liu AR, Wu XP, Xu T (2007) Research advances in endophytic fungi of mangrove. Chin J Appl Ecol 18:912–918Google Scholar
- Mayer AMS, Hamann MT (2004) Marine pharmacology in 2000: marine compounds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action. Mar Biotechnol 6:37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Raghukumar C (2008) Marine fungal biotechnology: an ecological perspective. Fungal Divers 31:19–35Google Scholar
- Sarma VV, Hyde, KD (2001) A review on frequently occurring fungi in mangroves. Fungal Divers 8:1–34Google Scholar
- Shearer CA, Descals E, Kohlmeyer B, Kohlmeyer J, Marvanová L, Padgett D et al (2007) Fuangal diversity in aquatic habitats. Biodivers Conserv 16:49–67Google Scholar
- Sridhar KR (2004) Mangrove fungi in India. Curr Sci 86(12):1586–1587Google Scholar
- Thatoi H, Behera BC, Mishra RR (2013) Ecological role and biotechnological potential of mangrove fungi: a review. Mycology 4(1):54–71Google Scholar
- Yan J, Guo XQ, Li XG, Wu XY, Gou XJ (2006) TLC to fleetly analyze monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide. Food Sci 27(12):603–607Google Scholar