Advertisement

Regional Geology of the Kodar-Udokan Mineral District

  • Bronislav Gongalsky
  • Nadezhda Krivolutskaya
Chapter
Part of the Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences book series (MASE)

Abstract

The Kodar-Udokan mineral district is spatially constrained to a narrow spur of the western margin of the Aldan Shield in the southeast of the Siberian Craton, sandwiched between the Phanerozoic Baikal-Muya and Mongol-Okhotsk mobile belts. It comprises many deposits of Cu, V, Fe, Ag, Ti, V, Ta-Nb, Zr, and REE-Y of different genetic types in sedimentary and magmatic rocks. The sandstones of the Udokan Supergroup, the gabbro rocks of the Chiney Intrusive Complex, and the alteration assemblages of the Katugin granite are hosts to the main deposits. New geological, mineralogical, and geochemical data on the rocks and mineralization are summarized here.

References

  1. Abramov BN (2011) Formation conditions and ore potential of black shales of the Udokan Group, eastern Siberia. Lithol Mineral Dep 46(4):353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ames DE, Davidson A, Wodicka N (2008) Geology of the giant Sudbury polymetallic mining camp, Ontario, Canada. Econ Geol 103:1057–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arkhangel’skaya VV (1998) Cryolite. Moscow, Geoinformmark, 26 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. Arkhangel’skaya VV (2014) Deposits of the Baikal-Amur Mainline zone. VIMS, Moscow, p 226 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. Arkhangel’skaya VV, Ryabtsev VV, Shuriga TN (2012) Geological structure and mineralogy of tantalum deposits. VIMS, Moscow, p 191 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Arkhangel’skaya VV, Bykhov Y, Volodin RN, Narkelyun LF, Skursky VC, Trubachev AI, Chechetkin VS (2004) Udokan copper and Katugin rare metal deposits in the Chita region, Russia. Administration of Chita, Chita, p 519 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. Arkhangel’skaya VV, Getmanskaya TI, Pechenkin IG, Shuriga TN (2010) Cryolite of Russia. In: Mashkovtsev AG (ed) Exploration and conservation of mineral resources. VIMS, Moscow, pp 26–31 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. Berezhnaya KK, Bibikova EV, Sochava VB, Kirnozova TI, Makarov VA, Bogomolov YS (1988) Isotopic age of the Chiney subformation, Udokan Group from the Kodar–Udokan Trough. DoklAkadNaukUSSR 302(2):1209–1212 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. Berezkin VI, Timofeev VF, Smelov AP, Postnikov AA, Timoshina ID, Zedgenizov AN, Popov NV (2007) Geology and petrology of Paleoproterozoic lower Khani graben-syncline (Aldan–Stanovoi shield): to the problem of search for traces of ancient life on the earth. Otech Geol 5:62–71 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. Bogdanov YV, Kochin GG, Kutyrev EI, Travin LV, Feoktistov VP (1966) Geology, formation conditions, and distribution of cupriferous sandstones in northeastern Olekma-Vitim mountain province. Int Geol Rev 8(11):1305–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonhomme MC (1987) Type of sampling comparison between K-Ar and Rb-Sr isotopic dating of fine fractions from sediments in attempt to date young diagenetic events. Chem Geol Isotope Geosci Sect 65(3–4):209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buchan KL, Ernst RE, Bleeker W, Davies W, Villeneuve M, van Breemen O, Hamilton M (2010) Proterozoic magmatic events of the Slave Craton, Wopmay Orogen and environs. Geological Survey of Canada, p 26Google Scholar
  13. Bulgatov AN, Gordienko IV (1999) Terrane and overlap assemblage map of Transbaikalia and Eastern Sayan Region, Southern Siberia, Russia. Scale 1:5,00 0,000. U.S. Geological Survey, 1 sheetGoogle Scholar
  14. Bulgatov AN, Gordienko IV (2014a) Fold systems of Sayan-Baikal Mountain area. In: Leonov YuG, Petrov OV, Pospelov II (eds) Explanatory note to the tectonic map of Northern, Central and Eastern Asia. Scale 1:2,500,000. VSEGEI, St-Petersburg, pp 53–58 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Bulgatov AN, Gordienko IV (2014b) Tectonic map of Northern-Central-Eastern Asia and adjacent areas. Scale 1:2,500,000. Petrov OV, Leonov YuG (eds) VSEGEI, St-Petersburg, p 15 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. Burmistrov VN (1990) Structure and composition of the Kemen Group of the Udokan Complex of eastern Siberia. Soviet GeolGeofiz 31(3):23–30 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. Cawthorn RG (2010) The platinum group element deposits of the bushveld complex in South Africa. Platinum Metals Rev 54:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Charlier B, Namur O, Latypov R, Tegner C (eds) (2015) Layered intrusions. Springer, Dordrecht, p 732Google Scholar
  19. Chechetkin VS, Kharitonov YuF (2002) Geology and mineral deposits of the Chita Segment of BAM. Chita, p 63 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. Chechetkin VS, Yurgenson GA, Narkelyun LF, Trubachev AI, Salikhov VS (2000) Geology and ore of the Udokan copper deposit: a review. Russ GeolGeophys 41(5):710–722Google Scholar
  21. Clauer N (1984) New approach to Rb-Sr method for sedimentary rocks. In: Chernyshov IV, Gorochov IM (eds) Isotope geology. Nedra, Moscow, pp 40–62 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  22. Demoura GV, Petrov AV (2014) Physical-geological modeling (simulation) and anizotropy geomagnetic tomography. Russ Geophys J 6:18–24. in RussianGoogle Scholar
  23. Didenko AN, Vodovozov VY, Pisarevsky SA, Gladkochub DP, Donskaya TV, Mazukabzov AM, Stanevich AM, Bibikova EV, Kirnozova TI (2009) Palaeomagnetism and U-Pb dates of the Palaeoproterozoic Akitkan Group (South Siberia) and implications for pre-Neoproterozoic tectonics. In: Reddy SM, Mazumder R, Evans DAD, Collins AS (eds) Palaeoproterozoic supercontinents and global evolution. Special Publication 323. Geological Society of London, pp 145—163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Didenko AN, Vodovozov VY, Peskov AY, Guryanov VA, Kosynkin AV (2015) Paleomagnetism of the Ulkan massif (SE Siberian platform) and the apparent polar wander path for Siberia in late Paleoproterozoic – early Mesoproterozoic times. Precambrian Res 259:58–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dixon CJ (1979) The Witwatersrand gold-uranium deposits — South Africa. In: Atlas of economic mineral deposits. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 26–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dodin D (2002) Metallogeny of the Taimyr–Noril’sk Region, the north of Central Siberia. Nauka, St.-Petersburg, p 822 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. Donskaya TV, Gladkochub DP, Kovach VP, Mazukabzov AM (2005) Petrogenesis of early Proterozoic post-collisional granitoids in the southern Siberian Craton. Petrology 13(3):229–252Google Scholar
  28. Duk LV, Kitsul VI, Berezkin VI (1979) Structures and metamorphism of the early Precambrian in the Aldan shield in the Timpton and Sutam River Valleys. In: Pushcharovsky YM (ed) Geodynamic studies. Nauka, Moscow, pp 7–29 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  29. Ernst RF (2014) Large igneous provinces, vol 653. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ernst RF, Hamilton MA, Söderlund U, Hanes JA, Gladkochub DP, Okrugin AV, Kolotilina TB, Mekhonoshin AS, Bleeker W, LeCheminant AN, Buchan KL, Chamberlain KR, Didenko AN (2016) Long-lived connection of Siberia and northern Laurentia in the Proterozoic. Nat Geosci 9:464–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Faure G (1986) Principles of isotope geology. Willey, New York, p 589Google Scholar
  32. Fedorovsky VS (1972) Lower Proterozoic stratigraphy of the Kodar and Udokan Ridges (East Siberia). Nauka, Moscow, p 130 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. Fedorovsky VS (1985) The lower Proterozoic of the Baikal mountainous area. Nauka, Moscow, p 200 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Fraser GL, Huston DL, Gibson GM, Neumann NL, Maidment D, Kositsin N, Skirrow RG, Jaireth S, Lyons P, Carson C, Cutten H, Lambeck A (2007) Geodynamic and metallogenic evolution of Proterozoic Australia from 1870–1550 Ma: a discussion. Geosci Aust Rec 16:76Google Scholar
  35. Gavrikova SN, Gongalsky BI (1980) Alkalinity and acidity of granitoids from the Olekma Stanovik ridge. Geokhimiya 18(10):1481–1500 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. Gavrikova SN, Pavlinov VN, Orlov VN, Rachkov VS, Gongalsky BI, Fedchuk VY, Surikova EP (1976) Mesozoic tectonomagmatic reactivation of the southwestern Olekma Stanovik ridge, eastern Transbaikalian region. Izv Vuzov Geologiya I Razvedka 10:12–19 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  37. Gladkochub DP, Wingate MTD, Pisarevsky SA, Donskaya TV, Mazukabzov AM, Ronomarchuk VA, Stanevich AM (2010) Proterozoic mafic magmatism in Siberian craton: an overview and implications for paleocontinental reconstruction. Precambrian Res 183:660–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glebovitsky VA, Khil’tova VY, Kozakov IK (2008) Tectonics of the Siberian Craton: interpretation of geological, geophysical, geochronological, and isotopic geochemical data. Geotectonics 42:8–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glukhovsky MZ (2009) Paleoproterozoic thermotectogenesis: a rotation–plume model of the formation of the Aldan shield. Geotectonics 43(3):226–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glukhovsky MZ, Moralev VM, Sukhanov MK (1993) Tectonic position of Paleoproterozoic anorthosites and granitoids of the Aldan shield and zoning of thermotectogenesis. Geotekt Forsch 28(3):69–81 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Gongalsky BI, Krivolutskaya NA (1993) The Chiney layered pluton. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 184 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  42. Gongalsky BI, Krivolutskaya NA, Goleva NG (1995a) Ore deposits of the Chiney pluton. In: Laverov NP (ed) Mineral deposits of the Transbaikalian region, vol 1. Geoinformmark, Moscow, pp 20–28 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  43. Gongalsky BI, Golovatyi AS, Abushkevich SA (1995b) Zonal ring structures of the Udokan range. Doklady Earth Sci 343(1):80–82 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  44. Gongalsky BI, Safonov YG, Krivolutskaya NA, Prokof’ev VYu, Yushin AA (2007) A new type of copper–noble metal mineralization in Northern Transbaikalia. Dokl Earth Sci 414(5):645–648Google Scholar
  45. Gongalsky BI, Sukhanov MK, Holtzman YV (2008) Sm-Nd isotope system of the Chiney anorthosite-gabbronorite pluton (eastern Transbaikalia). In: Chernyshev ID (ed) Problems of geology of ore deposits, mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry. IGEM, Moscow, pp 57–60 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  46. Gongalsky BI, Makariev LB, Voyakovsky SK (2009) Mesozoic to Cenozoic magmatism of the Udokan–Chiney District and uranium mineralization. In: Gordeev EI (ed) Volcanism and geodynamics. Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, pp 321–323 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Gongalsky BI, Timashkov AN, Voyakovsky SL (2012) U-Pb dating results on Paleoproterozoic zircons from intrusions of the Udokan-Chiney ore district (Russia). In: Laverov NP (ed) Abstracts of materials from Russian conference on isotope geochemistry. IGEM, Moscow, pp 110–112 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  48. Gorokhov IM, Timofeev VF, Bisunok MB, Kuznetsov AB (1989) Rb-Sr systems in metasedimentary deposits of the Khani trough (Olekma granite-greenstone area). In: Levsky LK, Levchenkov JA (eds) Isotope geochronology of the Precambrian. Nauka, Leningrad, pp 110–125 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. Gruenewaldt GV (1977) The mineral resources of the bushveld complex. Minerals Sci Eng 9:83–95Google Scholar
  50. Harn DMV, Gruenewaldt GV (1995) Ore-forming processes in the upper part of the bushveld complex, South Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 20:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hedenquist JW, Harris M, Camus F (eds) (2012) Geology and genesis of major copper deposits and districts of the world: attribute to Richard H. Sillitoe. SEG Spec Publ 16:618Google Scholar
  52. Hofmann AW (1988) Chemical differentiation of the earth: relationships between mantle, continental crust and oceanic crust. Earth Planet Sci Lett 90:297–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Irvine TN (1977) Origin of chromitite layers in the Muskox intrusion and other stratiform intrusions: a new interpretation. Geology 5:273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kazansky VI (1982) Faults in the Baikal–Amur region and related endogenic mineralization. In: Kuznetsov VA (ed) Faults and endogenic mineralization of the Baikal–Amur region. Nauka, Moscow, pp 5–14 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  55. Khain VE (2001) Tectonics of continents and oceans, vol 604. Scientific World, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  56. Konnikov EG (1986) Precambrian differentiated mafic–ultramafic complexes in the Transbaikalian region. Nauka, Novosibirsk, p 224 in RussianGoogle Scholar
  57. Korikovsky SP (1979) Facies of metamorphism for metapelites, vol 263. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Krasny LI (1980) Geology of the Baikal–Amur railroad region. Nedra, Moscow, p 159 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  59. Krendelev FP, Bakun NN, Volodin RN (1983) Udokan copper sandstone, vol 248. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  60. Larin AM, Kovalenko VI, KotovAB S'n EB, Kovach VP, Makariev LB, Timashkov AN, Berezhnaya NG, Yakovleva SZ (2000) New data on the age of granite of the Kodar and Tukuringra complexes, eastern Siberia: geodynamic constraints. Petrology 8(3):238–248Google Scholar
  61. Larin AM, Kotov AB, Sal’nikova EB, Kovalenko VI, Kovach VP, Yakovleva SZ, Berezhnaya NG, Ivanov VE (2002) Age of the Katugin Ta–Nb deposit, Aldan–Stanovoi shield: evidence for the identification of the global rare-metal metallogenic epoch. Dokl Earth Sci 383:336–339Google Scholar
  62. Larin AM, Kotov AB, Sal’nikova EB, Glebovitsky VA, Sukhanov MK, Yakovleva SZ, Kovach VP, Berezhnaya NG, Velikoslavinsky SD, Tolkachev MD (2006) The Kalar complex, Aldan–Stanovoi shield, an ancient anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–granite association: geochronologic, geochemical and isotopic–geochemical characteristics. Petrology 14(1):2–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lightfoot PC (2017) Nickel Sulfide Ores and Impact Melts: Origin of the Sudbury Igneous Complex. Elsevir 687Google Scholar
  64. Makariev LB, Voyakovsky SK, Il’kevich IV (2009) Gold ore potential of uranium objects in the Kodar–Udokan trough. Rudy I Metally 6: 56–64 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  65. Makariev LB, Mironov YB, Voyakovsky SK (2010) The outlook for the discovery of new types of economic uranium deposits in the Kodar–Udokan zone of the Transbaikalian territory in Russia. Geol Ore Deposits 52(5):381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mekhonoshin AS, Ernst RE, Söderlund U, Hamilton MA, Kolotilina TB, Izokh AE, Polyakov GV, Tolstykh ND (2016) Relationship between platinum-bearing ultramafic-mafic intrusions and large igneous provinces (exemplified by the Siberian craton). Russ Geol Geophys 57(5):1043–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mineeva IG, Arkhangel’skaya VV (2007) New direction in methodology of uranium and gold deposits on shields and in the Precambrian folded areas. Explor Conserv Subsoil 11:18–25 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  68. Mitrofanov GL (ed) (2016) Explanatory note to geological map of Russian Federation, scale 1:1,000,000 (third generation). VSEGEI, St-Peterbourg (in Russian)Google Scholar
  69. Mitrofanov GL, Moskovchenko NI (eds) (1985) The early Precambrian of the Aldan shield and its framework. Nauka, Leningrad, p 184 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  70. Neymark LA, Larin AM, Nemchin AA, Ovchinnikova GV, Ritsk EY (1998) Anorogenic nature of magmatism in the northern Baikal volcanic belt: evidence from geochemical, geochronological (U–Pb) and isotopic (Pb-Nd) data. Petrology 6(2):124–148Google Scholar
  71. Nutman AP, Chernyshev IV, Baadsgaard H, Smelov AP (1992) The Aldan shield of Siberia, USSR: the age of its Archean components and evidence for widespread reworking in the mid-Proterozoic. Precambrian Res 54(4):195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pavlinov VN, Gavrikova SN, Gongalsky BI, Orlov VN, Rachkov VS (1976) Pre-Mesozoic tectonomagmatic evolution of the southwestern Olekma Stanovik ridge, eastern Transbaikalian region. GeologiyaiRazvedka 8:10–24 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  73. Perelló J, Sillitoe RH, Yakubchuk AS, Valencia VA, Cornejo P (2017) Age and tectonic setting of the Udokan sediment-hosted copper-silver deposit, Transbaikalia, Russia. Ore Geol Rev 86:856–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pisarevsky SA, Natapov LM, Donskaya TV, Gladkochub DP, Vernikovsky VA (2008) Proterozoic Siberia: a promontory of Rodinia. Precambrian Res 160:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Podkovyrov VN, Kotov AB, Larin AM, Kotova LN, Kovach VP, Zagornaya NY (2006) Sources and provenances of lower Proterozoic terrigenous rocks of the Udokan group, southern Kodar–Udokan depression: results of Sm–Nd isotopic investigations. Doklady Earth Sci 408:518–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pokrovsky BG, Grigoriev VS (1995) New data on age and geochemistry of isotopes of Udokan Supergroup, lower Proterozoic, eastern Siberia. Lithol Miner Dep 3:273–283 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  77. Polyakov GV, Isokh AE, Krivenko AP (2006) Platiniferous ultramafic–mafic formations of mobile belts of Central and Southeastern Asia. Russ Geol Geophys 47:1227–1241Google Scholar
  78. Polyakov GV, Izokh AE, Krivenko AP (2006) Platiniferous ultramafic–mafic formations of mobile belts of central and southeastern Asia. Russ Geol Geophys 47(12):1227–1241Google Scholar
  79. Polyakov GV, Tolstykh ND, Mekhonoshin AS, Izokh AE, Podlipskiy MY, Orsoev DA, Kolotilina TB (2013) Ultramafic-mafic igneous complexes of the Precambrian east Siberian metallogenic province (southern framing of the Siberian craton): age, composition, origin and ore potential. Russ Geol Geophys 54(11):1689–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Popov NV, Kotov AB, Postnikov AA, Sal’nikova EB, Shaporina MN, Larin AM, Yakovleva SZ, Plotkina YV, Fedoseenko AM (2009) Age and tectonic position of the Chiney layered massif, Aldan shield. Dokl Earth Sci 424(1):64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rogers JJ, Santosh M (2004) Continents and supercontinents. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 5–22Google Scholar
  82. Rosen OM (2003) Siberian Craton: tectoniс zoning and stage of evolution. Geotectonics 3:3–21Google Scholar
  83. Rytsk EY, Kovach VP, Yarmolyuk VV, Kovalenko VI, Bogomolov ES, Kotov AB (2011) Isotopic structure and evolution of the continental crust in the east Transbaikalian segment of the central Asian Foldbelt. Geotectonics 45(5):349–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sklyarov EV (2006) Exhumation of metamorphic complexes: basic mechanisms. Russ Geol Geophys 47(1):71–75Google Scholar
  85. Salikhov VS (2010) Problems of age for the Udokan group. In: Kurilenko AV (ed) Geology and Minerageny of Transbaikalia. ZabNII, Chita, pp 77–83 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  86. Salop LI (1964) Geology of the Baikal highlands, vol 1. Nedra, Moscow, p 515 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  87. Salop LI (1967) Geology of the Baikal highlands: magmatism, tectonics and geological history. Moscow, Nedra, vol 2, p 699 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  88. Sinitsa SM (1996) Issue of the Udokan Biota of the Kodar-Udokan Area in the Transbaikal Region. In: Yurgenson GA (ed) Problems of ore formation and prospecting and evaluation of raw minerals, Novosibirsk, pp 177–181 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  89. Smelov AP, Kravchenko AA, Berezkin VI, Dobretsov VN (2007) Geology and geochemistry of basic-ultrabasic complexes of central part of the Aldan Shield. Otechestennaya Geologiya 7:53–62Google Scholar
  90. Smelov AP, Shatsky VS, Ragozin AL, Reutsky VN, Molotkov AE (2012) Archean diamondiferous rocks of the Olondo greenstone belt (western Aldan-Stanovoy shield). Russ Geol Geophys 10:1012–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stupak FM (1987) Cenozoic Volcanism of the Udokan Range. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 169 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  92. Tolstykh ND, Orsoev DA,Krivenko AP,Izokh AE (2008) Noble-metal mineralization in mafic–ultramafic layered plutons in the southern Siberian Platform. Parallel, Novosibirsk, p 194 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  93. Tombasov IA, Sinitsa SM (1990) Stratigraphy of rocks from Udokan Complex in Ikabya-Chitkanda region. In: Karsakov LP (ed) Stratigraphy of lower precambrian of the far east. Vladivostok, pp 56–61 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  94. Tombasov IA, Shemelina SF, Afonin GA, Drozdov SA (2004a) Governmental geological map of the Russian Federation, scale 1: 200,000. 2nd edn. Udokan series. O-50-XXXVI (Katugin). Maps. Factory of A. P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute, St-Petersburg, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  95. Tombasov IA, Shemelina SF, Afonin GA, Drozdov SA (2004b) Governmental geological map of the Russian Federation, scale 1:200,000. 2nd edn. Udokan series. O-50-XXXV (Naminga). Maps. Factory of A. P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute, St-Petersburg, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  96. Trusov AA, Petrov AV (2000) Computer technology of statistical and spectral-correlation analysis of three-dimensional geoinformation: COSCADE 3D. Russ Geophys J 4: 29–33 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  97. Vil’mova ES (1990) A possible reconstruction of Udokania colonies in Proterozoic sedimentary rocks of southern Transbaikalian Region. In: Yurgenson GA (ed) Topical Problems of Geosciences. Chita, pp 33–38 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  98. Vodovozov VYu, Zverev AR (2015) Paleomagnetism of Early Proterozoic formations of the south of the Siberian craton (Udokan and Kodar Ridges). In: Shecherbakov VP (ed) Paleomagnetism and magnetism of rocks: theory, practice, experiment. Materials of the All-Russian School-Seminar on Paleomagnetism and Magnetism of Rocks. Filigran, Yaroslavl, pp 27–33 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  99. Vodovozov VYu, Zverev AR, Filev EA (2016) Paleomagnetism of the Early Proterozoic complexes of the Olekma block, Siberian craton. In: Abstract of the 11th International Conference “Problems of geocosmos”, St.- Petersburg, p 183
  100. Vollbrecht A, Oberthur T, Ruedrich J, Weber K (2002) Microfabric analyses applied to the Witwatersrand gold- and uranium-bearing conglomerates: constraints on the provenance and post-depositional modification of rock and ore components. Mineral Deposita 37:433–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Volodin RN, Chechetkin VS, Bogdanov YV (1994) The Udokan copper sandstone deposit, eastern Siberia. Geol Ore Deposits 36(1):3–30Google Scholar
  102. Wang Y, Hу H, Ivanov AV, Zhu R, Lo C (2014) Age and origin of charoitite, Malyy Murun Massif, Siberia, Russia. Int Geol Rev 56:1007–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. York D (1966) Least-squares fitting of a straight line. Can J Phys 44:1079–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhao GC, Cawood PA, Wilde SA, Sun M (2002) Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinent. Earth Sci Rev 59(1/4):125–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bronislav Gongalsky
    • 1
  • Nadezhda Krivolutskaya
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Geology of Ore Deposits Petrography, Mineralogy and GeochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical ChemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations