The Antalya Tufas: Landscapes, Morphologies, Age, Formation Processes and Early Human Activities

  • Erdal KoşunEmail author
  • Baki Varol
  • Harun Taşkıran
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)


Tufa formation is a very common feature in the geological record of the Antalya region where it covers an area of 630 km2 and is up to 280 m thick. The oldest date obtained from this tufa deposit is >600 ka, and the youngest one is modern. Characteristic water landscapes are falls/cascades, fluvial channels and local pools. This tufa forms three major plateau systems that developed during the Quaternary. The upper plateau and the middle plateau are exposed above the sea, and the lowermost plateau is below sea level. Stable isotopic data (δ18O, δ13C) of Antalya Tufa indicate a formation under cold water conditions which were evidently affected by plant-induced CaCO3 precipitation and seasonal temperature changes. The isotopic ages and flora contents of Antalya Tufa clearly indicate that the middle and lower plateaus were formed during the Würmian regression period. Most geochemical and geomorphological data suggest that the deposition processes and morphologic features of the Antalya Tufa are related to sea level changes and climatic forcing rather than to tectonics. In addition to the geological settings of Antalya Tufa, caves and rock shelters located at the base of the southern and eastern limestone slopes of the Katran Mountains above the Döşemealtı tufa surface forming the upper plateau have been intensely occupied by humans intensively during the Palaeolithic and the Neolithic.


Antalya Tufa Palaeolithic cave Karain Cave Pleistocene Karstification Turkey 



Akdeniz University Scientific Research Project provided financial support for this study. We would like to thank Muharrem Satır (Tübingen University, Germany) and Uğur Temiz (Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey) for the isotopic analyses.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Geological EngineeringAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Prehistory, Faculty of LettersAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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