Advertisement

Gypsum Karst Landscape in the Sivas Basin

  • Uğur Doğan
  • Serdar Yeşilyurt
Chapter
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

The Tertiary Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia, includes one of the most outstanding gypsum karst terrains in the world, covering an area of 2140 km2. This gypsum karst significantly contributes to enrich the diversity of karst landscapes in Turkey and constitutes an excellent natural laboratory for understanding their evolution because it develops and degrades much faster than carbonate karst landscapes. The ENE–WSW trending Sivas gypsum karst terrain is 280 km long and 55 km wide. The karst landscapes are mainly developed on Oligocene gypsum deposits. Sivas gypsum karst terrain has a wide variety of well-developed karst features such as karren, different types of dolines (solution, collapse and suffosion), blind valleys, karst springs, swallow holes (ponors), karstified paleo-valleys, caves, unroofed caves, natural bridges, gorges, uvalas and poljes. Solution dolines, which riddle a large part of the area, are the most common landform. The Kızılırmak River and its tributaries drain the Sivas Basin. Therefore, Quaternary evolution of the Kızılırmak River has played an important role in the long-term evolution of the karst landscape in the basin. Karst development in some parts of the basin has also been affected by halokinetic structures.

Keywords

Gypsum karst Salt tectonic Collapse doline Solution doline Karren Unroofed cave 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Francisco Gutiérrez and Alexander Klimchouk who reviewed and greatly improved this chapter.

References

  1. Alagöz CA (1967) Sivas Çevresi ve Doğusunda Jips Karstı Olayları. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayını, Ankara, 126 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrejchuk V, Klimchouk A (2004) Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation in the gypsum karst of the fore-Ural region, Russia (from observations in the Kungurskaja Cave). Speleogenesis Evol Karst Aquifers 2(2):1–16Google Scholar
  3. Calaforra JM, Pulido-Bosch A (1999) Gypsum karst features as evidence of diapiric processes in the Betic Cordillera Southern Spain. Geomorphol 29:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Callot JP, Ribes C, Kergaravat C, Bonnel C, Temiz H, Poisson A, Vrielynck B, Salel JP, Ringebach JC (2014) Salt tectonics in the Sivas Basin (Turkey): crossing salt walls and minibasins. Bulletin de la Societe Géologique de France 185:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cater JML, Hanna SS, Ries AC, Turner P (1991) Tertiary evolution of the Sivas Basin, Central Turkey. Tectonophys 195:29–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Çiner A, Koşun E, Deynoux M (2002) Fluvial, evaporitic and shallow-marine facies architecture, depositional evolution and cyclicity in the Sivas Basin (Lower to Middle Miocene) Central Turkey. J Asian Earth Sci 21:147–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooper AH, Gutiérrez F (2013) Dealing with gypsum karst problems: hazards, environmental issues, and planning. In: Shroder JF (ed) Treatise on geomorphology. Elsevier, pp 451–462Google Scholar
  8. Çubuk Y, İnan S (1998) İmranlı ve Hafik Güneyinde (Sivas) Miyosen Havzası’nın Stratigrafik ve Tektonik Özellikleri. MTA Dergisi 120:45–60Google Scholar
  9. Doğan U (2002) Çankırı Doğusunda Jips Karstlaşmasıyla Oluşan Sübsidans Dolinleri. Gazi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi 22(1):67–82Google Scholar
  10. Doğan U (2005) Land subsidence and caprock dolines caused by subsurface gypsum dissolution and the effect of subsidence on the fluvial system in the Upper Tigris Basin (between Bismil-Batman, Turkey). Geomorphol 71:389–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doğan U (2010) Fluvial response to climate change during and after the Last Glacial Maximum in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Quat Int 222:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doğan U, Özel S (2005) Gypsum karst and its evolution east of Hafik (Sivas, Turkey). Geomorphol 71(3–4):373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doğan U, Yeşilyurt S (2004) Gypsum karst south of İmranlı. Cave Karst Sci 31(1):7–14Google Scholar
  14. Ford D, Williams P (2007) Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, 562 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fort X, Brun J-P (2011) Salt tectonics at passive margins: geology versus models. Mar Pet Geol 28:1123–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gedik A, Özbudak N (1974) Sivas Celalli-1 sondajı bitirme raporu. MTA Rap., 5260 (yayımlanmamış), AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  17. Günay G (2002) Gypsum karst, Sivas, Turkey. Environ Geol 42:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gutiérrez F, Cooper AH (2013) Surface morphology of gypsum karst. In: Shroder JF (ed) Treatise on geomorphology. Elsevier, pp 425–437Google Scholar
  19. Gutiérrez F, Cooper AH, Johnson KS (2008a) Identification, prediction and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas. Environ Geol 53:1007–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gutiérrez F, Guerrero J, Lucha P (2008b) A genetic classification of sinkholes illustrated from evaporite paleokarst exposures in Spain. Environ Geol 53:993–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klimchouk A (1996) The dissolution and conversion of gypsum and anhydrite. Int J Speleol 5:21–36 (In: Klimchouk A, Lowe D, Cooper A, Sauro U (eds) Gypsum karst of the world)Google Scholar
  22. Klimchouk A (2013) Evolution of intrastratal karst and caves in gypsum. In: Shroder JF (ed) Treatise on geomorphology. Elsevier, pp 438–450Google Scholar
  23. Koşun E, Çiner A (2002) Lithostratigraphy and facies characteristics of continental to shallow marine Miocene deposits; south of Zara (Sivas Basin). Bull Miner Res Explor (MTA J) 125:65–88Google Scholar
  24. Mohr M, Kukla PA, Urai JL, Bresser G (2005) Multiphase salt tectonic evolution in NW Germany: seismic interpretation and retro-deformation. Int J Earth Sci 94(5–6):917–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ocakoğlu F (1999) Evaporitlerden kaynaklanan sünümlü deformasyona ilişkin bazı veriler (Zara, Sivas doğusu). MTA Dergisi 121:83–95Google Scholar
  26. Poisson AM, Guezou JC, Öztürk A, İnan S, Temiz H, Gürsoy H, Kavak K, Özden S (1996) Tectonic setting and evolution of the Sivas Basin Central Anatolia, Turkey. Int Geol Rev 38:838–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Poisson A, Wernli R, Lozouet P, Poignant A, Temiz H (1997) New stratigraphic data concerning the marine Oligo-Miocene formations of the Sivas Basin (Turkey). Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences-Series II A—Earth Planatery Sci 325(11):869–875Google Scholar
  28. Temiz H (1996) Tectonostratigraphy and thrust tectonics of the Central and eastern parts of the Sivas Tertiary basin (Turkey). Int Geol Rev 38:957–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Waltham T (2002) Gypsum karst near Sivas Turkey. Cave Karst Sci 29(1):39–44Google Scholar
  30. Yılmaz I (2007) GIS based susceptibility mapping of karst depressions in gypsum: a case study from Sivas Basin (Turkey). Eng Geol 90:89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yılmaz A, Yılmaz H (2006) Characteristic features and structural evolution of a post collisional basin: the Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey. J Asian Earth Sci 27:164–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Institute of Geological Sciences, University of BernBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations