Advertisement

Quaternary Volcanic Landscapes and Prehistoric Sites in Southern Cappadocia: Göllüdağ, Acıgöl and Hasandağ

  • Damase MouralisEmail author
  • Erkan Aydar
  • Ahmet Türkecan
  • Catherine Kuzucuoğlu
Chapter
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

The southern Cappadocia shows a large variety of Quaternary volcanic landscapes, offering the opportunity to observe beautiful and generally fresh morphologies. These landscapes include two rhyolitic complexes (Göllüdağ and Acıgöl), a huge composite volcano (Hasandağ) and numerous monogenic vents, with scoria cones, domes and maars. Natural and anthropogenic sections show a large variety of lava flows and tephra layers. The precise study of this volcanic material allows reconstructing the volcanic and geomorphologic evolution of this area during the Quaternary, including modes of emplacements, chronology of the volcanic successions, morphological impacts on the landscapes. In addition, archaeological excavations in southern Cappadocia testify for the presence of ancient populations since the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic. During the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, the southern Cappadocia has been intensively occupied with permanent sites (Aşıklı Höyük, Musular, Tepecik Çiftlik, Köşk Höyük, etc.) as well as non-permanent sites devoted to mining and chopping of obsidian associated with some of the volcanoes.

Keywords

Quaternary volcanism Obsidian Volcanic complex Cinder cone Composite volcano 

References

  1. Akbaşlı A (1992) Niğde-Sofular-Acıgöl sıcak su sondajları (NAR-1, MTA-1,2,3,4) kuyu bitirme raporu (Final report for NAR-1, MTA-1,2,3,4 water wells of Niğde-Sofular-Acıgöl). MTAReport 9407, MTA (Maden Tetkik ve Arama), Ankara (Turkey)Google Scholar
  2. Atabey E (ed) (1989) Geologic map of the Kayseri—H19 Quadrangle (Kayseri—H19 Paftası Jeoloji Haritalası). 1:100.000 Geological map of Turkey. MTA, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  3. Aydar E (1992) Etude Volcano-Structurale et Magmatologique du Strato-Volcan Hasan Dagi, Anatolie Centrale-Turquie. PhD Thesis, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France), pp 200Google Scholar
  4. Aydar E, Gourgaud A, Deniel C, Lyberis N, Gündoğdu N (1995) Le volcanisme quaternaire d’Anatolie centrale Turquie: association de magmatisme calco-alcalin et alcalin en domaine de convergence. Can J Earth Sci 32(7):1058–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aydar E, Gourgaud A (1998) The geology of Mount Hasan stratovolcano, Central Anatolia, Turkey. J Volcanol Geoth Res 85:129–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aydar E, Schmitt AK, Çubukçu HE, Akın L, Ersoy O, Sen E, Duncan RA, Atıcı G (2012) Correlation of ignimbrites in the Central Anatolian volcanic province using zircon and plagioclase ages and zircon compositions. J Volcanol Geoth Res 213:83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayhan A (ed) (1989). Geologic Map of the Kayseri—I19 Quadrangle (Kayseri—I19 Paftası Jeoloji Haritaları). 1:100.000 Geological map of Turkey. Maden Tetkik ve Arama (MTA), Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  8. Balkan-Atlı N, Binder D (2012) Neolithic obsidian workshop at Kömürcü–Kaletepe (Central Anatolia. In: Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (eds) The Neolithic in Turkey: new excavations and new research (Central Turkey), vol. 3. Archaeology and Art Pub., Istanbul, pp 71–88Google Scholar
  9. Balkan-Atlı N, Kuhn S, Astruc L, Kayacan N, Dinçer B, Balcı S, Erturaç MK, Grenet M (2011) Göllüdağ survey 2010. Anatolia Antiq 19:259–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bıçakçı E, Godon M, Çakan Y (2012) Tepecik-Çiftlik. In: Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (eds) The Neolithic in Turkey: new excavations and new research (Central Turkey), vol. 3. Archaeology and Art Pub., Istanbul, pp 89–134Google Scholar
  11. Bigazzi G, Yegingil Z, Ercan T, Oddone M, Özdoğan M (1993) Fission track dating obsidians in central and northern Anatolia. Bull Volc 55(8):588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Binder D, Gratuze B, Mouralis D, Balkan- Atlı N (2011) New investigations of the Göllüdağ obsidian lava flows system: a multidisciplinary approach. J Archaeol Sci 38:3174–3184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clarke KC (2013) What is the world’s oldest map? Cartogr J 50:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. d’Alfonso L, Balza ME, Mora C (2010) Geo-archaeological activities in southern Cappadocia, Turkey. Proceedings of the meeting held in Pavia 20.11.2008. Italian University Press, Pavia, pp 140Google Scholar
  15. Deniel C, Aydar E, Gourgaud A (1998) The Hasandağ stratovolcano (Central Anatolia, Turkey): evolution from calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism in a collision zone. J Volcanol Geoth Res 87:275–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dönmez M (ed) (2005) Geological map of the Aksaray—L32 Quadrangle (Aksaray—L32 Paftası Jeoloji Haritaları). 1:100.000. Geological map of Turkey, MTA, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  17. Druitt TH, Brenchley PJ, Gökten YE, Francaviglia V (1995) Late Quaternary rhyolitic eruptions from the Acıgöl complex, Central Turkey. J Geol Soc 152(4):655–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. England A, Eastwood WJ, Roberts CN, Turner R, Haldon JF (2008) Historical landscape change in Cappadocia (Central Turkey): a palaeoecological investigation of annually laminated sediments from Nar lake. Holocene 18(8):1229–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ercan T, Tokel S, Can B, Fişekçi A, Fujitani T, Notsu K, Selvi Y, Ölmez M, Matsuda JI, Ui T, Yıldırım T, Akbaşlı A (1990) Hasandağ-Karacadağ (Orta Anadolu) dolaylarındaki Senozoyik yaşlı volkanizmanın kökeni ve evrimi (Evolution and origine of the Cenozoic volcanism in the Hasandağ-Karacadağ area (Central Anatolia). Jeomorfol Derg (J Geomorphol) 18:39–54Google Scholar
  20. Froger J-L, Lénat J-F, Chorowicz J, Le Pennec J-L, Bourdier J-L, Köse Ö, Zimitoğlu O, Gündoğdu Gourgaud A (1998) Hidden calderas evidenced by multisource geophysical data; example of Cappadocian Calderas, Central Anatolia. J Volcanol Geoth Res 85(1–4):99–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gülcür S, Fırat C (2004) Spatial analysis of Güvercinkayası, a middle Chalcolithic hilltop settlement in northwestern Cappadocia: a preliminary report. Anatolia Antiqua XIII, pp 41–52Google Scholar
  22. Jones MD, Roberts CN, Leng MJ, Türkeş M (2006) A high-resolution late Holocene lake isotope record from Turkey and links to north Atlantic and monsoon climate. Geol 34(5):361–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kazancı N, Gevrek A-I, Varol B (1995) Facies changes and high calorific peat formation in a Quaternary Maar lake, Central Anatolia, Turkey: the possible role of geothermal processes in a closed lacustrine basin. Sed Geol 94(3–4):255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuzucuoğlu C (2013) Geomorphology of the Melendiz river in Cappadocia (Turkey): setting of pre-pottery Neolithic sites of Aşıklı and Musular, and climate reconstruction during the onset of the Holocene. Geogr Fis E Dinammica Quat 36:95–105Google Scholar
  25. Kuzucuoğlu C, Pastre JF, Black S, Ercan T, Fontugne M, Guillou H, Hatté C, Karabıyıkoğlu M, Orth P, Türkecan A (1998) Identification and dating of tephra layers from Quaternary sedimentary sequences of inner Anatolia, Turkey. J Volcanol Geoth Res 85:153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuzucuoğlu C, Mouralis D, Türkecan A (2013) Geomorphological mapping as an illustration of geomorphological evolution reconstruction: the example of the Çiftlik plain in Cappadocia (Niğde). In: Öner E (ed) Proceedings in honour of Prof. Ilhan Kayan. Ege University-Faculty of Humanities Publ, Izmir, pp 133–144Google Scholar
  27. Le Pennec J-L, Bourdier J-L, Froger J-L, Temel A, Camus G, Gourgaud A (1994) Neogene ignimbrites of the Nevşehir plateau (Central Turkey): stratigraphy, distribution and source constraints. J Volcanol Geoth Res 63(1–2):59–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mellaart J (1967) Çatal Höyük: a Neolitic town in Anatolia. Thames and Hudson, London, p 201Google Scholar
  29. Mouralis D (2003) Les complexes volcaniques quaternaires de Cappadoce (Göllüdağ et Acıgöl)—Turquie : évolutions morphodynamiques et implications environnementales. PhD Thesis, Paris 12 University, Paris (Unpublished)Google Scholar
  30. Mouralis D, Pastre J-F, Kuzucuoğlu C, Türkecan A, Atıcı Y, Slimak L, Guillou H, Kunesch S (2002) Les complexes volcaniques rhyolithiques quaternaires d’Anatolie centrale (Göllü Dağ et Acıgöl, Turquie): Genèse, instabilité, contraintes environnementales. Quat 13(3):219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Notsu K, Fujitani T, Ui T, Matsuda J, Ercan T (1995) Geochemical features of collision-related volcanic rocks in central and eastern Anatolia, Turkey. J Volcanol Geoth Res 64:171–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Özbaşaran M (2012) Aşıklı. In: Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (eds) The Neolithic in Turkey, new excavations and new research (Central Turkey), vol. 3. Archaeology and Art Pub. Istanbul, pp 135–158Google Scholar
  33. Özbaşaran M, Duru G, Kayacan N, Erdoğu B, Buitenhuis H (2012) Musular—The 8th Mill cal. BC Sattelite site of Aşıklı. In: Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (eds) The Neolithic in Turkey, new excavations and new research (Central Turkey), vol. 3. Archaeology and Art Pub., Istanbul, pp 159–180Google Scholar
  34. Öztan A (2007) Köşk Höyük. In: Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (eds) The Neolithic in Turkey, new excavations and new research (Central Turkey), vol. 3. Archaeology and Art Pub., Istanbul, pp 223–235Google Scholar
  35. Pastre J-F, Kuzucuoğlu C, Fontugne M, Guillou H, Karabıyıkoğlu M, Ercan T, Türkecan A (1998) Séquences volcanisées et corrélations téphrologiques au N-W du Hasan dağ (Haut bassin de la Melendiz, Anatolie centrale, Turquie). Quat 9(3):169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roberts N, Reed JM, Leng MJ, Kuzucuoğlu C, Fontugne M, Bertaux J, Woldring H, Bottema S, Black S, Hunt E, Karabıyıkoğlu M (2001) The tempo of Holocene climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean region: new high-resolution Crater-Lake sediment data from Central Turkey. Holocene 11(6):721–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmitt AK, Danışık M, Evans NJ, Siebel W, Kiemele E, Aydın F, Harvey JC (2011) Acıgöl rhyolite field, Central Anatolia (part 1): high-resolution dating of eruption episodes and zircon growth rates. Contrib Miner Petrol 162(6):1215–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schmitt AK, Danışık M, Aydar E, Sen E, Ulusoy İ, Lovera OM (2014) Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a Neolithic painting at Çatalhöyük (Turkey). PLOSONE 9(1):e84711Google Scholar
  39. Slimak L, Kuhn SL, Roche H, Mouralis D, Buitenhuis H, Balkan-Atlı N, Binder D, Kuzucuoğlu C, Guillou H (2008) Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): Archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia. J Hum Evol 54:99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Toprak V (1998) Vent distribution and its relation to regional tectonics, Cappadocian volcanics, Turkey. J Volcanol Geoth Res 85(1–4):55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tryon CA, Logan AV, Mouralis D, Kuhn S, Slimak L, Balkan-Atlı N (2009) Building a tephrostratigraphic framework for the Paleolithic of Central Anatolia, Turkey. J Archaeol Sci 36(3):637–652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Türkecan A, Kuzucuoğlu C, Mouralis D, Pastre J-F, Atıcı Y, Guillou H, Fontugne M (2004) Upper Pleistocene volcanism and palaeogeography in Cappadocia (Turkey). MTA-CNRS-TÜBİTAK 2001–2003 research programme. Tübitak Project No. 101Y109. M.T.A., Ankara, pp 180Google Scholar
  43. Ulusoy I, Labazuy P, Aydar E, Yürür T, Artuner H, Torleif D (2009) Multisource geophysical investigation of the Acıgöl Caldera structure (Central Turkey): preliminary results. In: EGU General Assembly: 7746 (Vienna, Austria)Google Scholar
  44. Yıldırım T, Özgür R (1981) Acıgöl Kalderası (The Caldera of Acıgöl). Jeomorfol Derg (J Geomorphol) 10:59–70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Damase Mouralis
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Erkan Aydar
    • 3
  • Ahmet Türkecan
    • 4
  • Catherine Kuzucuoğlu
    • 2
  1. 1.Rouen-Normandie University & CNRS, Laboratoire I.D.E.E.SRouenFrance
  2. 2.Laboratory of Physical Geography (LGP, UMR 8591)CNRS, Universities of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and Paris 12 U-PecParisFrance
  3. 3.Department of Geological EngineeringHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.General Directorate of Mineral Research & Exploration, MTAAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations