Advertisement

Geomorphological Landscapes in the Konya Plain and Surroundings

  • Catherine KuzucuoğluEmail author
Chapter
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

Like other large plains of Central Anatolia, the Konya Plain is occupied by deposits and land features recording the past presence of a large lake. Sand beaches and bars, gravel sand lake and coastal fans, fringe the base of low cliffs developed in (i) Neogene lake limestone forming a wide plateau to the north (ca. 1050–1200 m a.s.l.), (ii) Quaternary volcanics in the centre and (iii) Palaeozoic limestone in the south and west. The plain is flat at ca. 980–1000 m a.s.l. and corresponds to the bottom clay of a 4200 km2 large palaeolake. 14C dating performed on Dreissena and mollusc shells collected in quarries exploiting the coastal sand and clay, and also in stream sections and in cores, date the lake to the coldest period of the Last Glacial, the LGM. Together with other formations (e.g. palaeosol, volcanics, alluvial fans), and geomorphological features (e.g. karstic, volcanic, tectonic), these deposits allow understanding today’s landscapes, as well as to reconstruct past landscapes and climates, and their evolution during the late Pleistocene. Tectonically controlled (subsidence), the plain and surroundings are subject to karstic processes. Karstic features are mainly represented by sinkhole (called obruk in Turkish) concentrations in the Obruk Plateau that separates the Konya Plain from the Tuz Gölü Plain. Starting two decades ago in relation to groundwater overuse, the occurrence of new sinkholes, wider and deeper with time, is a matter of great concern in the agricultural areas where they occur, on roads and villages too. Other threats to the environment (e.g. biological diversity, wetlands, soil, water) are linked to resource overuse and sustainability in the context of drying trend since the 1990s.

Keywords

Central Anatolia Konya Plain Karst Late Pleistocene Water management Palaeoenvironment Volcanoes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Many results presented here have been obtained in the frame of a programme led by the author and M. Karabıyıkoğlu between 1993 and 1997, and financed mainly by the CNRS (France) and the MTA (Turkey). This programme was also supported by the CNES (France), the LSCE (France), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (France), as well as the TÜBITAK (Turkey), Services of Village Affairs, (Turkey), and the DSI (Turkey). The collaboration was essential with the ORSTOM (today IRD, France), and with many villages and “Yayla” families in the whole area of the Konya Plain and surrounding highlands. Thanks are also addressed to Naim Aydınbelge and his family in Karapınar, and to Prof. Dr. E. Bıçakçı for logistic support.

References

  1. Altın T, Barak B, Altın N (2012) Change in precipitation and temperature amounts over three decades in central Anatolia, Turkey. Atmos Climate Sci 2:107–125Google Scholar
  2. Asouti E, Fairbairn A (2002) Subsistence economy in central Anatolia during the Neolithic: the archaeobotanical evidence. In: Gérard F, Thissen L (eds) The neolithic of central anatolia. Ege Yayınları, Istanbul, pp 181–192Google Scholar
  3. Baird D (2012a) Pınarbaşı. From Epipaleolithic Camp-Site to Sedentarising Village in Central Anatolia. In: Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (eds) The Neolithic in Turkey, vol 3. Archaeology and Art Publications, Istanbul, pp 181–218Google Scholar
  4. Baird D (2012b) The Late Epipaleolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic of the Anatolian Plateau, 13000–4000 BC calibrated. In: Potts E (ed) Blackwell companion at Near Eastern Archaeology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 431–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayarı CS, Pekkan E, Özyurt N (2009) Obruks, as giant collapse dolines caused by hypogenic karstification in central Anatolia, Turkey: analysis of likely formation processes. Hydrogeol J 17:327–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Besang C, Eckhardt FJ, Harre W, Kreuzer H, Müller P (1977) Radiometrische 1ltersbestimmungen an Neogenen eruptive Gesteinen der Türkei. Geologisches Jahrbuch B 25:3–36Google Scholar
  7. Bottema S, Woldring H (1984) Late Quaternary vegetation and climate of southwestern Turkey Part II. Palaeohistoria 26:123–149Google Scholar
  8. Boyer P, Roberts N, Baird D (2006) Holocene environment and settlement on the Çarşamba Alluvial Fan, South-Central Turkey: integrating geoarchaeology and archaeological field survey. Geoarchaeol Int J 21(7):675–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Canık B, Çörekçioglu I (1986) The formation of sinkholes (Obruk) between Karapınar and Kızören-Konya. In: Günay G, Johnson AI (eds) Proceedings of symposium on karst water resources ankara-antalya July 1985. IAHS Publ, no 161, pp 193–205Google Scholar
  10. De Meester T (ed) (1970) Soils of the great Konya Basin, Turkey. Centre of Agricultural Publishing and Documentation PUDOC, Wageningen, 290 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Doğan U, Yılmaz M (2011) Natural and induced sinkholes of the Obruk Plateau and Karapınar-Hotamış Plain, Turkey. J Asian Earth Sci 40:496–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ercan T, Tokel S, Matsuda JI, Notsu K, Fujitani T (1992) Hasandağı-Karacadağ (Orta Anadolu) Kuvaterner volkanizmasına ilişkin yeni jeokimyasal, izotopik ve radyometrik veriler. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı Bülteni 7:8–21Google Scholar
  13. Erinç S (1962) On the relief features of blown sand at the Karapınar surroundings in the interior Anatolia. Rev Geogr Inst Istanbul 8:113–130Google Scholar
  14. Erol O (1978) The Quaternary history of the lake basins of central and southern Anatolia. In: Brice WC (ed) The environmental history of the near and middle east since the last ice age. Academic Press, London, pp 111–139Google Scholar
  15. Erol O (1986) The relationships between the phases of the development of the Konya-Karapınar obruks and the Pleistocene Tuz Gölü and Konya pluvial lakes. In: Gunay G, Johnson AI (eds) Proceedings of symposium on Karst water resources Ankara-Antalya July 1985. IAHS Publications, no 161, pp 207–213Google Scholar
  16. Fontugne M, Kuzucuoğlu C, Karabıyıkoğlu M, Hatté C, Pastre J-F (1999) From Pleniglacial to Holocene. A 14C chronostratigraphy of environmental changes in the Konya Plain, Turkey. Quat Sci Rev 18, 4/5:573–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. French D, Hillman GD, Payne S, Payne RJ (1972) Excavations at can Hasan III, 1969–1970. In: Higgs ES (ed) Papers in economic prehistory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 181–190Google Scholar
  18. Gramond D (2002) Dynamique de l’occupation du sol et variation des usages de l’eau en Anatolie centrale (Turquie) au cours du XXe siècle: recherches méthodologiques basées sur l’analyse diachronique de données satellitaires et statistiques (Land use dynamics and water usages variations in central Anatolia (Turkey) through the 20th century: methodological researches based on diachronic analyses of satellite imagery and statistics). PhD, Univ. Paris 4, FrenchGoogle Scholar
  19. Göçmez G, Dıvrak BB, Galena İ (2008) Determination of the groundwater level changes in the Konya closed basin. Summary Report, WWF, Istanbul, TurkishGoogle Scholar
  20. Hodder I (2006) The Leopard’s Tale: revealing the Mysteries of Catalhöyük. Thames and Hudson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Inoue K, Saito M (1997) Climatic changes in the Konya Basin, Turkey, estimated from physicochemical, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of its lacustrine sediments. J Rev 8:147–164Google Scholar
  22. Karabıyıkoğlu M, Kuzucuoğlu C, Fontugne M, Kaiser B, Mouralis D (1999) Facies and Depositional sequences of the Late Pleistocene Göçü shoreline system, Konya basin, Central Anatolia: Implications for reconstructing lake level changes. Quat Sci Rev 18:593–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kasapoğlu E, Temel A, Yürür T, Aydar E, Lyberis N, Gourgaud A, Chorowicz J, Froger JL, Daniel C, Vidal P, Aksoy H, Gillot PY, Olanca K (1997) Orta Anadolu’da volkanizma tektonik ilişkileri (Toros Kenet Kuşağı Kuzeyi). Tübitak Project “YBAG-0078/DPT”, TÜBITAK, Ankara, 314 pp. UnpublishedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuzucuoğlu C (2007) Le dernier glaciaire et l’Holocène en Anatolie centrale: apports de la géomorphologie et de la sédimentologie (The Last Glacial and the Holocene in central Anatolia: geomorphological and sedimentological records). In: André MF, Etienne S, Lageat Y, Le Coeur C, Mercier D (eds) Du continent au bassin versant. Théories et pratiques en géographie physique (Hommage au Professeur Alain Godard), PU Blaise-Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, French, pp 495–505Google Scholar
  25. Kuzucuoğlu C (2012) Le rôle du climat dans les changements culturels, du Vè au 1er millénaire av. notre ère, en Méditerranée orientale. In: Berger J-F (ed) Des climats et des hommes, La Découverte, Paris, pp 239–256Google Scholar
  26. Kuzucuoğlu C, Karabıyıkoğlu M, Fontugne M, Pastre J-F, Ercan T (1997) Environmental changes in Holocene Lacustrine Sequences from Karapınar in the Konya Plain (Turkey). In: Dalfes N, Kukla G, Weiss H (eds) Third millenium BC climate change and old world collapse, NATO ASI series 1, vol 49, pp 451–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuzucuoğlu C, Parish R, Karabıyıkoğlu M (1998a) The dune systems of the Konya Plain (Turkey). Their relation to the environmental changes in central Anatolia during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Geomorphology 23:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuzucuoğlu Pastre, Black J-F, Ercan T, Fontugne M, Guillou H, Hatté C, Karabıyıkoğlu M, Orth P, Türkecan A (1998b) Identifi cation and dating of tephra layers from quaternary sedimentary sequences of Inner Anatolia, Turkey. JVGR 85:153–172Google Scholar
  29. Kuzucuoğlu C, Bertaux J, Black S, Denèfle M, Fontugne M, Karabıyıkoğlu M, Kashima K, Limondin-Lozouet N, Mouralis D, Orth P (1999) Reconstruction of climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene, based on sediment records from the Konya Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey). Geol J 34:175–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kuzucuoğlu C, Gramond D (2006) Sécheresse et crise de l’eau dans la plaine de Konya (plateaux intérieurs anatoliens, Turquie): indicateurs et contexte. In: Beck C, Luginbühl Y, Muxart T (eds) Temps et Espaces des crises de l’Environnement, Ed Quae, Coll Indisciplines, Paris, 83–98Google Scholar
  31. Kuzucuoğlu C, Dörfler W, Kunesch S, Goupille F (2011) Mid-Holocene climate change in central Turkey: the Tecer lake record. The Holocene 21(1):173–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mellaart J (1967) Çatal Höyük: a Neolithic town in Anatolia. Thames and Hudson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Melnick D, Yıldırım C, Hillemann C, Garcin Y, Çiner A, Pérez-Gussinyé M, Strecker MA (2017) Slip along the Sultanhanı Fault in Central Anatolia from deformed Pleistocene shorelines of palaeo-lake Konya and implications for seismic hazards in low-strain regions. Geophys J Int 209(3):1431–1454.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggx074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Naruse T, Kitagawa H, Hisashi M (1997) Lake level changes and development of alluvial fans in lake Tuz and the Konya basin during the last 24000 years on the Anatolian plateau, Turkey. Jpn Rev 8:65–84Google Scholar
  35. Olanca K (1994) Géochimie des laves quaternaires de Cappadoce (Turquie): Les appareils monogéniques. Unpublished PhD thesis, Blaise Pascal University, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 156 pGoogle Scholar
  36. Özbaşaran M (2011) The Neolithic on the Plateau. In: Steadman S, McMahon G (eds) The Oxford handbok of ancient Anatolia 10.000–323 BCE. Oxford University Press, pp 99–124Google Scholar
  37. Özdemir A (2015) Investigation of sinkholes spatial distribution using the weights of evidence method and GIS in the vicinity of Karapinar (Konya, Turkey). Geomorphology 245:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (2012). The Neolithic in Turkey, vol 3 (Central Anatolia). Archaeology and Art Publications, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  39. Roberts N (1983) Age, paleoenvironments, and climatic significance of late Pleistocene Konya Lake, Turkey. Quat Res 19:154–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Roberts N, Erol O, de Meester T, Uerpmann HP (1979) Radiocarbon chronology of Late Pleistocene Konya Lake, Turkey. Nature 281:662–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roberts N, Black S, Boyer P, Eastwood WJ, Griffiths HI, Lamb HF, Leng MJ, Paris R, Reed JM, Twigg D, Yiğitbaşoğlu H (1999) Chronology and stratigraphy of late quaternary sediments in the Konya Basin, Turkey: Results from the KOPAL Project. Quat Sci Rev 18:611–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roberts N, Eastwood W, Kuzucuoğlu C, Fiorentino G, Caracuta V (2011) Climatic, vegetation and cultural change in the eastern Mediterranean during the mid-Holocene environmental transition. The Holocene 21(1):147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steiner et al (2013) IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0-50000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55:4.  https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Topak R, Acar B (2010) Konya Basin agriculture-environment relationships and sustainability. In: 2nd International Symposium on Sustainable Development, pp 204–213Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Physical Geography (LGP, UMR 8591)CNRS, Universities of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and Paris 12 U-PecMeudonFrance

Personalised recommendations