Other Existing Carbon Forms

  • Boris Ildusovich Kharisov
  • Oxana Vasilievna Kharissova


In this section, we show several other carbon allotropes, from those rare as, for example, lonsdaleite to common glassy carbon and “carbon black,” xerogels, or hydrogels. In case of carbide- and MOF-derived carbons (relatively new research areas, especially the last one), the production methods vary and structures of formed carbons can be distinct (carbon nanotubes, fullerene- or onion-like nanostructures, nanocrystalline graphitic carbon, amorphous carbon, nanodiamonds, etc.); this is not a special structural type of carbon.


Glassy carbon Carbide-derived carbon MOF-derived carbon Chaoite Graphane Graphone M-carbon Q-carbon T-carbon 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris Ildusovich Kharisov
    • 1
  • Oxana Vasilievna Kharissova
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo LeónMonterreyMexico

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