Geographies of Latin American Corruption

  • Barney WarfEmail author
Part of the GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 125)


This chapter addresses the historical and contemporary dimensions of corruption in Latin America. It opens with a brief overview of the long history of corruption in the region. Second, it focuses on the geography of corruption throughout Latin America, including maps, tables of bribery rates, and a statistical analysis. The third part offers brief summaries of corruption in various countries. Then, it offers case studies of corruption in Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil. It concludes with comments about corruption in light of the uneven geography of democracy.


Latin America Bribes Mexico Venezuela Brazil 


  1. Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. (2001). The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation. American Economic Review, 91, 1369–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adorno, S. (2013). Democracy in progress in contemporary Brazil: Corruption, organized crime, violence and new paths to the rule of law. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 2, 409–425.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, A. (2017, December 2). Mexico’s government is blocking its own anti-corruption drive, commissioners say. New York Times.
  4. Alesina, A., Devleeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Kurlat, S., & Wacziarg, R. (2003). Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2), 155–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alonso, A., & Mische, A. (2017). Changing repertoires and partisan ambivalence in the new Brazilian protests. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 36(2), 144–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambraseys, N., & Bilham, R. (2011). Corruption kills. Nature, 469, 153–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, J. (2016, June 29). Argentina’s culture of corruption. The New Yorker.
  8. Andrien, K. (1984). Corruption, inefficiency, and imperial decline in the seventeenth-century viceroyalty of Peru. The Americas, 41(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andvig, J. C. (2006). Corruption and fast change. World Development, 34(2), 328–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Astorga, P., Bergés, A., & FitzGerald, V. (2005). The standard of living in Latin America during the twentieth century. Economic History Review, 58(4), 765–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bailey, J., & Paras, P. (2006). Perceptions and attitudes about corruption and democracy in Mexico. Mexican Studies, 22(1), 57–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balán, M. (2011). Competition by denunciation: The political dynamics of corruption scandals in Argentina and Chile. Comparative Politics, 43(4), 459–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Basch, F., & Jorge, G. (2016, August 18). Argentina’s quiet (giant) step against corruption. Americas Quarterly.
  14. Bases, D. (2018, March 12). U.S. house panel probes corruption allegations at Puerto Rico utility. Reuters.
  15. Bauman, Z. (1998). On glocalization: Or globalization for some, localization for some, localization for others. Thesis Eleven, 54(1), 37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bobonis, L., Cámara Fuertes, L., & Schwabe, R. (2012). The dynamic effects of information on political corruption: Theory and evidence from Puerto Rico (Banco de Mexico Working Paper).
  17. Bortoluci, J. H., & Jansen, R. S. (2013). Toward a postcolonial sociology: The view from Latin America. Political Power and Social Theory, 24, 199–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brands, H. (2010). Crime, violence, and the crisis in Guatemala: A case study in the erosion of the state. Washington, DC: Strategic Studies Institute.Google Scholar
  19. Brunetti, A., & Weder, B. (2003). A free press is bad news for corruption. Journal of Public Economics, 87(7–8), 1801–1824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003). The economic history of Latin America since independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bulte, E., Damania, R., & López, R. (2007). On the gains of committing to inefficiency: Corruption, deforestation and low land productivity in Latin America. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 54(3), 277–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buxton, J. (2001). The failure of political reform in Venezuela. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Calderón Navarro, N. (2006). Fighting corruption: The Peruvian experience. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4, 488–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Canache, D., & Allison, M. (2005). Perceptions of political corruption in Latin American democracies. Latin American Politics and Society, 47(3), 91–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chepesiuk, R. (2003). The bullet or the bribe: Taking down Colombia’s Cali drug cartel. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  26. Clutterbuck, R. (1995). Peru: Cocaine, terrorism, and corruption. International Relations, 12(5), 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coatsworth, J. (2008). Inequality, institutions and economic growth in Latin America. Journal of Latin American Studies, 40(3), 545–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Collier, M. (2005). Political corruption in the Caribbean Basin: Constructing a theory to combat corruption. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Collins, R. (2011). Patrimonial alliances and failures of state penetration: A historical dynamic of crime, corruption, gangs, and mafias. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 636(1), 16–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Conaghan, C. (2002). Cashing in on authoritarianism: Media collusion in Fujimori’s Peru. Press/Politics, 7(1), 115–125. Scholar
  31. Conaghan, C. (2005). Fujimori’s Peru: Deception in the public sphere. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  32. Coronel, G. (2006). Corruption, mismanagement, and abuse of power in Hugo Chávez’s Venezuela. Cato Institute.
  33. Corrales, J., & Penfold, M. (2007). Venezuela: Crowding out the opposition. Journal of Democracy, 18(2), 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dada, C. (2015, September 4). Corruption charges turn Guatemala upside down. The New Yorker.
  35. Davis, C., Camp, R., & Coleman, K. (2004). The influence of party systems on citizens’ perceptions of corruption and electoral response in Latin America. Comparative Political Studies, 37, 677–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. de Michele, R. (2001). The role of the anti-corruption office in Argentina. Journal of Public Inquiry, Fall/Winter, 17–20.
  37. Di John, J. (2007). Oil abundance and violent political conflict: A critical assessment. Journal of Development Studies, 43(6), 961–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Di John, J. (2010a). From windfall to curse? Oil and industrialization in Venezuela, 1920 to the present. College Station, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Di John, J. (2010b). The concept, causes, and consequences of failed states: A critical review of the literature and agenda for research with specific reference to sub-Saharan Africa. European Journal of Development Research, 22, 10–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Díaz-Briquets, S., & Pérez-López, J. (2006). Corruption in Cuba: Castro and beyond. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  41. Dietz, H., & Myers, D. (2007). From thaw to deluge: Party system collapse in Venezuela and Peru. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(2), 59–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Drori, G. S., Jang, S.-Y., & Meyer, J. W. (2006). Sources of rationalized governance: Cross-national longitudinal analyses, 1985–2002. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(2), 205–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dugas, J. (2001). Drugs, lies and audiotape: The Samper crisis in Colombia. Latin American Research Review, 36(2), 157–174.Google Scholar
  44. Dussauge Laguna, M. (2011). The challenges of implementing merit-based personnel policies in Latin America: Mexico’s civil service reform experience. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 13(1), 51–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ferraz, C., & Finan, F. (2008). Exposing corrupt politicians: The effects of Brazil’s publicly released audits on electoral outcomes. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123(2), 703–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fleischer, D. (1996). Political corruption in Brazil. Crime, Law and Social Change, 25(4), 297–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Flynn, P. (2005). Brazil and Lula, 2005: Crisis, corruption and change in political perspective. Third World Quarterly, 26(8), 1221–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Freeman, L. (2006). State of siege: Drug-related violence and corruption in Mexico: Unintended consequences of the war on drugs (WOLA Special Report).
  49. Freille, S., Haque, M. E., & Kneller, R. (2007). A contribution to the empirics of press freedom and corruption. European Journal of Political Economy, 23(4), 838–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gates, L. (2014). Interest groups in Venezuela: Lessons from the failure of a ‘model democracy’ and the rise of a Bolivarian democracy. Journal of Public Affairs, 14(3–4), 240–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gavigan, P. (2009). Organized crime, illicit power structures and Guatemala’s threatened peace process. International Peacekeeping, 16(1), 62–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gaviria, A. (2002). Assessing the effects of corruption and crime on firm performance: Evidence from Latin America. Emerging Markets Review, 3(1), 245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Geddes, B., & Neto, A. (1992). Institutional sources of corruption in Brazil. Third World Quarterly, 13(4), 641–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gerring, J., & Thacker, S. (2005). Do neoliberal policies deter political corruption? International Organization, 59(1), 233–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gilbert, J. (2014, June 28). Argentina’s vice president charged in corruption case. New York Times.
  56. Gill, T. (2016). Whither Venezuelan Bolivarianism? NACLA Report on the Americas, 48(4), 367–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Grandin, G. (2016, December 16). Christmas in Caracas? Worse than the grinch! Amid today’s crisis, what is salvageable from the Bolivarian revolution? A conversation with Alejandro Velasco. The Nation.
  58. Granovetter, M. (2007). The social construction of corruption. In V. Nee & R. Swedberg (Eds.), On capitalism (pp. 152–172). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Grayson, G. (2010). Mexico: Narco-violence and a failed state? New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  60. Hallin, D., & Papathanassopoulos, S. (2002). Political clientelism and the media: Southern Europe and Latin America in comparative perspective. Media, Culture and Society, 24(2), 175–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hammond, J. (2011). The resource curse and oil revenues in Angola and Venezuela. Science & Society, 75(3), 348–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hinton, M. (2005). A distant reality: Democratic policing in Argentina and Brazil. Criminal Justice, 5(1), 75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hoggard, S. (2004). Preventing corruption in Colombia: The need for an enhanced state-level approach. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, 21, 577–619.Google Scholar
  64. Hunt, J. (2005). Why are some public officials more corrupt than others? (William Davidson Institute Working Paper Number 790).
  65. Hunt, J. (2007). Bribery in health care in Peru and Uganda (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 13034). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  66. Huntington, S. (1991). Democracy’s third wave. Journal of Democracy, 2(2), 12–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ionescu, L. (2011). Mexico’s pervasive culture of corruption. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 2, 182–187.Google Scholar
  68. Ioris, A. (2016). “La plata llega sola” [The money arrives on its own]: Reflections on corruption trends in Peru. Diálogos Latinoamericanos, 25.
  69. Isaacs, A. (2010). Guatemala on the brink. Journal of Democracy, 21(2), 108–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Joseph, M., & Phillips, N. (2016). Judicial corruption in Haiti: The need for discipline and civil society participation. Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 39, 183–210.Google Scholar
  71. Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Zoido-Labatón, P. (2000, June). Governance matters: From measurement to action. Finance & Development, 10–13.Google Scholar
  72. Kott, A. (2012). Assessing whether oil dependency in Venezuela contributes to national instability. Journal of Strategic Security, 5(3), 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Langbein, L., & Sanabria, P. (2013). The shape of corruption: Colombia as a case study. Journal of Development Studies, 49(11), 1500–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lavena, C. (2013). What determines permissiveness toward corruption? A study of attitudes in Latin America. Public Integrity, 15(4), 345–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Li, H., Xu, L.-C., & Zou, H.-F. (2000). Corruption, income distribution, and growth. Economics and Politics, 12(2), 155–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Licht, A., Goldschmidt, C., & Schwartz, S. (2007). Culture rules: The foundations of the rule of law and other norms of governance. Journal of Comparative Economics, 35(4), 659–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lindsey, B. (2002). How Argentina got into this mess. Cato Institute.
  78. Little, W. (1996). Corruption and democracy in Latin America. IDS Bulletin, 27(2), 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maingot, A. (1995). Haiti: The political rot within. Current History, 94(589), 59–64.Google Scholar
  80. Mainwaring, S., & Scully, T. (2008). Latin America: Eight lessons for governance. Journal of Democracy, 19(3), 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Malkin, E. (2015, June 14). Wave of protests spreads to scandal-weary Honduras and Guatemala. New York Times, p. 9.Google Scholar
  82. Manzetti, L. (2014). Accountability and corruption in Argentina during the Kirchners’ era. Latin American Research Review, 49(2), 173–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Manzetti, L., & Blake, C. (1996). Market reforms and corruption in Latin America. Review of International Political Economy, 3, 671–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Manzetti, L., & Wilson, C. (2006). Corruption, economic satisfaction, and confidence in government: Evidence from Argentina. The Latin Americanist, 49(2), 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McGreal, C. (2010, December 27). What happened next? Jamaican crime and corruption. The Guardian.
  86. McMillan, J., & Zoido, P. (2004). How to subvert democracy: Montesinos in Peru. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(4), 69–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Melo, M., Pereira, C., & Figueiredo, C. (2009). Political and institutional checks on corruption: Explaining the performance of Brazilian audit institutions. Comparative Political Studies, 42(9), 1217–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Michener, G., & Pereira, C. (2016). A great leap forward for democracy and the rule of law? Brazil’s Mensalão trial. Journal of Latin American Studies, 48(3), 477–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Miroff, N. (2011, May 5). Cuba: Catching kleptocrats. GlobalPost.
  90. Morris, S. (1991). Corruption and politics in contemporary Mexico. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  91. Morris, S. (2008). Disaggregating corruption: A comparison of participation and perceptions in Latin America with a focus on Mexico. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 27(3), 388–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Morris, S. (2009). Political corruption in Mexico: The impact of democratization. Boulder, CO: Lynn Reiner.Google Scholar
  93. Morris, S. (2013). Drug trafficking, corruption, and violence in Mexico: Mapping the linkages. Trends in Organized Crime, 16(2), 195–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Morris, S., & Blake, C. (Eds.). (2010). Corruption and politics in Latin America: National and regional dynamics. Boulder and London: Rienner.Google Scholar
  95. Morris, S., & Klesner, J. (2010). Corruption and trust: Theoretical considerations and evidence from Mexico. Comparative Political Studies, 43(10), 1258–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2006). Corruption: Diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Democracy, 17(3), 86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Navarro, N. (2006). Fighting corruption: The Peruvian experience. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4(3), 488–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Neuman, L. (ed.) (2002). Fostering transparency and preventing corruption in Jamaica. Atlanta: The Carter Center.
  99. North, D., Summerhill, W., & Weingast, B. (2000). Order, disorder, and economic change: Latin America versus North America. In B. de Mesquita & H. Root (Eds.), Governing for prosperity (pp. 17–58). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Nugent, D. (2018). Corruption now and then: Managing threats to the nation in twentieth-century Peru. Current Anthropology, 59(sup. 18), S28–S36. Scholar
  101. O’Brien, M. (2016, May 19). There has never been a country that should have been so rich but ended up this poor. Washington Post, p. 1.Google Scholar
  102. Oliver-Smith, A. (2010). Haiti and the historical construction of disasters. NACLA Report on the Americas, 43(4), 32–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Perdomo, R. (1990). Corruption and business in present day Venezuela. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(7), 555–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pérez, O. (2017). Panama: Democracy under the shadow of corruption. Revista de ciencia política, 37(2). Scholar
  105. Philpott, D. (2004). The Catholic wave. Journal of Democracy, 15(2), 32–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pinto, J. (2008). Muzzling the watchdog: The case of disappearing watchdog journalism from Argentine mainstream news. Journalism, 9(6), 750–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Poseda, A. (2013). Corruption, economic development, and insecurity in Colombia. In I. Osman (Ed.), Handbook of research on strategic performance management and measurement using data envelopment analysis (pp. 373–387). New York: IGI Global Press.Google Scholar
  108. Poveda, A. (2015). Corruption, economic development, and insecurity in Colombia. In A. Poveda (Ed.), Business law and ethics: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 572–284). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  109. Praça, S., & Taylor, M. (2014). Inching toward accountability: The evolution of Brazil’s anticorruption institutions, 1985–2010. Latin American Politics and Society, 56(2), 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Przeworski, A., & Limongi, F. (1997). Modernization: Theories and facts. World Politics, 49(2), 155–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Quiroz, A. (2003). Implicit costs of empire: Bureaucratic corruption in nineteenth-century Cuba. Journal of Latin American Studies, 35(3), 473–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Quiroz, A. (2008). Corrupt circles: A history of unbound graft in Peru. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.Google Scholar
  113. Ramachandran, V., & Walz, J. (2012). Haiti: Where has all the money gone? (CGD Policy Paper 004). Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
  114. Richard, M. (2014). Brazil’s landmark anti-corruption law. Law and Business Review of the Americas, 20, 141–147.Google Scholar
  115. Robles, F. (2015, March 16). Haitian leader’s power grows as scandals swirl. New York Times.
  116. Rock, M. (2009). Corruption and democracy. Journal of Development Studies, 45(1), 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Romero, S. (2015, August 13). An anticorruption drive throws Brazil’s leadership into disarray. New York Times, p. 1, 7.Google Scholar
  118. Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2008). What is quality of government? A theory of impartial government institutions. Governance, 21(2), 165–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ruhl, J. M. (2011). Political corruption in Central America: Assessment and explanation. Latin American Politics and Society, 53(1), 33–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Saba, R., & Manzetti, L. (1996). Privatization in Argentina: The implications for corruption. Crime, Law and Social Change, 25(4), 353–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sáenz Rovner, E. (2008). The Cuban connection: Drug trafficking, smuggling, and gambling in Cuba from the 1920s to the revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  122. Sampson, S. (2010). The anti-corruption industry: From movement to institution. Global Crime, 11(2), 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schamis, H. E. (1991). Reconceptualizing Latin American authoritarianism in the 1970s: From bureaucratic-authoritarianism to neoconservatism. Comparative Politics, 23(2), 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schulte-Bockholt, A. (2013). Corruption as power: Criminal governance in Peru during the Fujimori era (1990–2000). New York: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Seligson, M. (2002). The impact of corruption on regime legitimacy: A comparative study of four Latin American countries. Journal of Politics, 64(2), 408–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Seligson, M. (2006). The measurement and impact of corruption victimization: Survey evidence from Latin America. World Development, 34(2), 381–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sives, A. (2002). Changing patrons, from politician to drug don: Clientelism in downtown Kingston, Jamaica. Latin American Perspectives, 126(5), 66–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Smith, J., Colan, V., Sabogal, C., & Snook, L. (2006). Why policy reforms fail to improve logging practices: The role of governance and norms in Peru. Forest Policy and Economics, 8(4), 458–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sokoloff, K., & Engerman, S. (2000). History lessons: Institutions, factors endowments, and paths of development in the new world. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3), 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Taylor, L. (2000). Patterns of electoral corruption in Peru: The April 2000 general election. Crime, Law and Social Change, 34(4), 391–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Taylor, M., & Buranelli, V. (2007). Ending up in pizza: Accountability as a problem of institutional arrangement in Brazil. Latin American Politics and Society, 49, 59–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thies, C. (2005). War, rivalry, and state building in Latin America. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Thoumi F. (2012). Colombian organized crime: From drug trafficking to parastatal bands and widespread corruption. In D. Siegel & H. van de Bunt (Eds.), Traditional organized crime in the modern world: Studies of organized crime (Vol. 11, pp. 131–148). Boston: Springer.Google Scholar
  134. Timmons, J., & Garfias, F. (2015). Revealed corruption, taxation, and fiscal accountability: Evidence from Brazil. World Development, 70, 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Transparency International. (2001). Country study report: Colombia.
  136. Treisman, D. (2000). The causes of corruption: A cross-national study. Journal of Public Economics, 76, 399–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Triesman, D. (2007). What have we learned about the causes of corruption from ten years of cross-national empirical research? Annual Review of Political Science, 10, 211–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tulchin, J., & Espach, R. (Eds.). (2000). Combating corruption in Latin America. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.Google Scholar
  139. Vanden, H. (2004). New political movements and governance in Latin America. International Journal of Public Administration, 27(13–14), 1129–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Väsquez, J. (2013). Colombian police under fire: Image, corruption and controls. Policing: An International Journal, 36(2), 399–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vicens, A. (2015, February 27). You’ve probably never heard of America’s worst police force. Mother Jones.
  142. Villalón, R. (2007). Neoliberalism, corruption, and legacies of contention: Argentina’s social movements, 1993–2006. Latin American Perspectives, 34(2), 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Waisbord, S. (2004). Scandals, media, and citizenship in contemporary Argentina. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(8), 1072–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Waller, L., Bourne, P., Minto, I., & Rapley, J. (2007). A landscape assessment of political corruption in Jamaica. Kingston: Guango Tree House.
  145. Weber, M. (1975). Roscher and Knies: The logical problems of historical economics. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  146. Weyland, K. (1998). The politics of corruption in Latin America. Journal of Democracy, 9(2), 108–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Weyland, K. (2013). The threat from the populist left. Journal of Democracy, 24(3), 18–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Williams, J., & Beare, M. (1999). The business of bribery: Globalization, economic liberalization, and the “problem” of corruption. Crime, Law and Social Change, 32(2), 115–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wolf, E., & Hansen, E. (1967). Caudillo politics: A structural analysis. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 9(2), 168–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. You, J., & Khagram, S. (2005). A comparative study of inequality and corruption. American Sociological Review, 70(1), 136–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations