Pre-service Teachers and Informal Statistical Inference: Exploring Their Reasoning During a Growing Samples Activity

  • Arjen de VettenEmail author
  • Judith Schoonenboom
  • Ronald Keijzer
  • Bert van Oers
Part of the ICME-13 Monographs book series (ICME13Mo)


Researchers have recently started focusing on the development of informal statistical inference (ISI) skills by primary school students. However, primary school teachers generally lack knowledge of ISI. In the literature, the growing samples heuristic is proposed as a way to learn to reason about ISI. The aim of this study was to explore pre-service teachers’ reasoning processes about ISI when they are engaged in a growing samples activity. Three classes of first-year pre-service teachers were asked to generalize to a population and to predict the graph of a larger sample during three rounds with increasing sample sizes. The content analysis revealed that most pre-service teachers described only the data and showed limited understanding of how a sample can represent the population.


Informal inferential reasoning Informal statistical inference Initial teacher education Primary education Samples and sampling Statistics education 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arjen de Vetten
    • 1
    Email author
  • Judith Schoonenboom
    • 2
  • Ronald Keijzer
    • 3
  • Bert van Oers
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Educational SciencesVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of EducationUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Academy for Teacher Education, University of Applied Sciences iPaboAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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