# Design for Reasoning with Uncertainty

## Abstract

The uncertainty involved in drawing conclusions based on a single sample is at the heart of informal statistical inference. Given only the sample evidence, there is always uncertainty regarding the true state of the situation. An “Integrated Modelling Approach” (IMA) was developed and implemented to help students understand the relationship between sample and population in an authentic context. This chapter focuses on the design of one activity in the IMA learning trajectory that aspires to assist students to reason with the uncertainty involved in drawing conclusions from a single sample to a population. It describes design principles and insights arising from the implementation of the activity with two students (age 12, grade 6). Implications for research and practice are also discussed.

## Keywords

Informal statistical inference Model and modeling Sample and population Statistics education Uncertainty## References

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