# Secondary Teachers’ Learning: Measures of Variation

## Abstract

This chapter describes results from a project to design and implement professional development for middle and high school mathematics teachers to investigate how dilemma, critical reflection, and rational discourse affect teachers’ understandings and reasoning about variation. Framed by transformative learning theory, this study highlights how teachers’ engagement with activities designed to prompt dilemma, consideration of multiple perspectives through multiple representations and rational discourse, and examination of premises underlying measures and procedures broadened teachers’ perspectives on measures of variation. This study contributes to teacher education by identifying circumstances conducive to deepening statistical understandings and supporting increasingly complex statistical reasoning.

## Keywords

Mean absolute deviation Professional development Standard deviation Transformative learning theory Variation## Notes

### Acknowledgements

This paper is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1149403. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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