Advertisement

White-Lipped Peccary Movement and Range in Agricultural Lands of Central Brazil

  • Maria Luisa S. P. JorgeEmail author
  • Alexine Keuroghlian
  • Jennifer Bradham
  • Júlia Emi F. Oshima
  • Milton Cezar Ribeiro
Chapter

Abstract

White-lipped peccaries (WLPs) are known as forest-dependent species and are thus expected to respond negatively to deforestation. Yet, little is known about how WLP herds use agricultural lands where high portions (i.e., more than 50%) of the native forest have been removed. In order to understand how WLPs access and use forested habitats nested within agricultural landscapes, we analyzed WLP movement (i.e., linear distances moved) at varying temporal intervals (3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 168 h, and 720 h) and monthly herd ranges (MCP 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%) in two agricultural regions of Central Brazil. Short- and long-term movement did not show variation across months or seasons. Yet, long-term movement and ranges positively correlated with the diversity of available fruits and negatively correlated with the percent of forest cover. Furthermore, the negative relationship between ranges and forest cover was more pronounced during the wet season, with herds in areas with less forest cover having ranges twice as large as those in areas with more forest cover. Our results suggest that short-term movement is most likely reflective of internal drivers (e.g., body shape, physiology). On the other hand, long-term movement and ranges respond to external drivers, which, in this case, are most likely changes in the spatiotemporal distribution of fruiting trees in areas with less forest cover. Our results provide important information for the conservation of this keystone species by establishing that WLPs are negatively affected by forest removal, of which the consequences may be exacerbated with seasonality.

Keywords

Fragmentation Frugivory GPS technology Trophic interactions Tropical forests Ungulates 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Maria do Carmo Andrade Santos, Paulino Oliveira Ângelo, Renata Reinoso Rocha, and Marcello Schiavo Nardi (our project veterinarian) for their assistance in capturing, collaring, and monitoring white-lipped peccaries, sampling fruits, and plant identification. We thank Donald P. Eaton for previous edits. We thank all the volunteers that have participated on the project, especially teachers Jeff Wilford and Liz Kinzly, the Global Ecotours and Expeditions volunteers, and Chatham University. We acknowledge and appreciate the support from the local communities for access to land and key information regarding the local flora and fauna. This research was graciously funded by FAPESP (grant n. 2013/50421-2 and 2014/23132-2), CNPq (grant n. 312045/2013-1; 312292/2016-3 and scholarship: 161089/2014-3), Silicon Valley Community Foundation, the Overbrook Foundation, the International ReSource Award, WCS Brasil, and Vanderbilt University.

References

  1. Altrichter M, Drews C, Sáenz JC, Carrilo E (2002) Presupuesto de tiempo del chancho cariblanco (Tayassu pecari) em un bosque humedo de Costa Rica. Biotropica 34:136–143Google Scholar
  2. Altrichter M, Carrillo E, Sáenz J, Fuller TK (2001) White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) diet and fruit availability in a Costa Rican rain forest. Rev de Biol Trop 49(3):1183–1192Google Scholar
  3. Achard F, Eva HD, Stibig HJ, Mayaux P, Gallego J, Richards T, Malingreau JP (2002) Determination of deforestation rates of the world’s humid tropical forests. Science 297(5583):999–1002. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1070656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin KG, González-Roglich M, Schaffer-Smith D, Schwantes AM, Swenson JJ (2017) Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers. Environ Res Lett 12(5):054009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck H (2006) A review of peccary-palm interactions and their ecological ramifications across the Neotropics. J Mammal 87:519–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck H, Thebpanya P, Filiaggi M (2010) Do Neotropical peccary species (Tayassuidae) function as ecosystem engineers for anurans? J Trop Ecol 26:407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck H, Snodgrass J, Thebpanya P (2013) Long-term exclosure of large terrestrial vertebrates: implications of defaunation for seedling demographics in the Amazon rainforest. Biol Conserv 163:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butchart SHM, Walpole M, Collen B, van Strien A, Scharlemann JPW, Almond REA, Baillie JEM, Bomhard B, Brown C, Bruno J, Carpenter KE, Carr GM, Chanson J, Chenery AM, Csirke J, Davidson NC, Dentener F, Foster M, Galli A, Galloway JN, Genovesi P, Gregory RD, Hockings M, Kapos V, Lamarque J-F, Leverington F, Loh J, McGeoch MA, McRae L, Minasyan A, Morcillo MH, Oldfield TEE, Pauly D, Quader S, Revenga C, Sauer JR, Skolnik B, Spear D, Stanwell-Smith D, Stuart SN, Symes A, Tierney M, Tyrrell TD, Vie J-C, Watson R (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328(5982):1164–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calenge C (2006) The package “adehabitat” for the R software: a tool for the analysis of space and habitat use by animals. Ecol Model 197(3–4):516–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carrillo E, Saenz JC, Fuller TK (2002) Movements and activities of white-lipped peccaries in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. Biol Conserv 108:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cullen L Jr, Bodmer RE, Valladares-Pádua C (2001) Ecological consequences of hunting in Atlantic forest patches, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Oryx 35:137–144Google Scholar
  12. de Azevedo FCC, Conforti VA (2008) Decline of peccaries in a protected subtropical forest of Brazil: toward conservation issues. Mammalia 72(2):82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Desbiez ALJ, Santos SA, Keuroghlian A, Bodmer RE (2009) Niche partitioning between sympatric populations of native white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), and introduced feral pigs (Sus Scrofa). J Mammal 90(1):119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fragoso JM (1998) Home range and movement patterns of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) herds in the Northern Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica 30:458–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fragoso JM (2004) A long-term study of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) population fluctuation in Northern Amazonia. In: Silvius K, Bodmer RE, Fragoso JMV (eds) People in nature, wildlife conservation in South and Central America. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 286–296Google Scholar
  16. Françoso RD, Brandao R, Nogueira CC, Salmona YB, Machado RB, Colli GR (2015) Habitat loss and the effectiveness of protected areas in the Cerrado Biodiversity Hotspot. Nat Conservação 13:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Galetti M, Guevara R, Neves CL, Rodarte RR, Bovendorp RS, Moreira M, Hopkins JB III, Yeakel J (2015a) Defaunation affect populations and diet of rodents in Neotropical rainforests. Biol Conserv 190:2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Galetti M, Bovendorp RS, Guevara R (2015b) Defaunation of large mammals leads to an increase in seed predation in the Atlantic forest. Glob Ecol Conserv 3:824–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Getz WM, Saltz D (2008) A framework for generating and analyzing movement paths on ecological landscapes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(49):19066–19071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hofmann MPG, Signer J, Hayward MW, Balkenhol N (2016) Spatial ecology of a herd of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) using GPS telemetry: challenges and preliminary results. Therya 7:21–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova SA, Tyukavina A, Thau D, Stehman SV, Goetz SJ, Loveland TR, Kommareddy A, Egorov A, Chini L, Justice CO, Townshend JRG (2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342(6160):850–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayne DW (1949) Calculation of size of home range. J Mammal 30(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacomo ATA, Furtado MM, Kashivakura CK (2013) White-lipped peccary home-range size in a protected area and farmland in the central Brazilian grasslands. J Mammal 94:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jorge MLSP, Galetti M, Ribeiro M, Ferraz KMPMB (2013) Mammal defaunation as surrogate of trophic cascades in a biodiversity hotspot. Biol Conserv 163:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keuroghlian A (2003) The response of peccaries to seasonal fluctuations in an isolated patch of tropical forest. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NevadaGoogle Scholar
  26. Keuroghlian A, Desbiez ALJ (2010) Biometric and age estimation of live peccaries in the Southern Pantanal, Brazil. Suiform Soundings 9:24–35Google Scholar
  27. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP (2008a) Fruit availability and peccary frugivory in an isolated Atlantic forest fragment: effects on peccary ranging behavior and habitat use. Biotropica 40:62–70Google Scholar
  28. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP (2008b) Importance of rare habitats and riparian zones in a tropical forest fragment: preferential use by Tayassu pecari, a wide-ranging frugivore. J Zool 275:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP (2009) Removal of palm fruits and ecosystem engineering in palm stands by white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) and other frugivores in an isolated Atlantic Forest fragment. Biodivers Conserv 18:1733–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP, Longland WS (2004) Area use by white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Tayassu tajacu) in a tropical forest fragment. Biol Conserv 120:411–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Keuroghlian A, Eaton D, Desbiez ALJ (2009) The response of a landscape species, white-lipped peccaries, to seasonal resource fluctuations in a tropical wetland, the Brazilian Pantanal. Int J Biodivers Conserv 1(4):87–97Google Scholar
  32. Keuroghlian A, Santos MCA, Eaton DP (2015) The effects of deforestation on white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) home range in the southern Pantanal. Mammalia 70:491–497Google Scholar
  33. Keuroghlian A, Reyna-Hurtado R, Meijaard E, Altrichter M, Beck H, Gongora JR (2017) Conservation of wild pigs and peccaries. In: Melletti M, Meijaard E (eds) Ecology, conservation and management of wild pigs and peccaries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klink CA, Machado RB (2005) Conservation of the Brazilian cerrado. Conserv Biol 19(3):707–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Köppen W (1884) Translated by Volken, E.; Brönnimann, S. “Die Wärmezonen der Erde, nach der Dauer der heissen, gemässigten und kalten Zeit und nach der Wirkung der Wärme auf die organische Welt betrachtet” [The thermal zones of the earth according to the duration of hot, moderate and cold periods and to the impact of heat on the organic world)]. Meteorol Z (published 2011) 20(3):351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kiltie RA, Terborgh J (1983) Observations on the behavior of rain Forest peccaries in Perú: why do white-lipped peccaries form herds? Z Tierpsychol 62(3):241–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leite CC, Costa MH, Soares-Filho BS, Hissa LBV (2012) Historical land use change and associated carbon emissions in Brazil from 1940 to 1995. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 26:GB2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mohr CO (1947) Table of equivalent populations of north American small mammals. Am Midl Nat 37(1):223–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Painter LRE (1998) Gardeners of the forest: plant–animal interactions in a Neotropical forest ungulate community. PhD dissertation. Liverpool: University of LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  40. Paviolo A, De Angelo C, Di Blanco Y, Di Bitetti M (2008) Jaguar population decline in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest of Argentina and Brazil. Oryx 42:554–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Powell RA (2000) Animal home ranges and territories and home range estimators. In: Boitani L, Fuller TK (eds) Research techniques in animal ecology: controversies and consequences. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 65–110Google Scholar
  42. Peres CA (2000) Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests. Conserv Biol 14(1):240–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pott A, Pott VJ (2003) Espécies de Fragmentos Florestais em Mato Grosso do Sul. In: Costa RB (ed) Fragmentação Florestal e Alternativas de Desenvolvimento Rural na Região Centro-Oeste. MS, UCDB, Campo Grande, pp 26–52Google Scholar
  44. Reyna-Hurtado R, Rojas-Flores E, Tanner GW (2009) Home range and habitat preferences of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu Pecari) in Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico. J Mammal 90:1199–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reyna-Hurtado R, Chapman CA, Calme S, Pedersen E (2012) Searching in heterogeneous environments: foraging strategies in the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari). J Mammal 93:124–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reynolds J, Wesson K, Desbiez A, Ochoa-Quintero J, Leimgruber P (2016) Using remote sensing and random forest to assess the conservation status of critical Cerrado habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Land 5(2):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Santana WSC (2015) Análise-multitemporal da paisagem, potencialidades e fragilidades sob a ótica do uso e ocupação: destaque para as terras da Alta Bacia do Rio Taboco-MS. Ph.D thesis. State University of Sao Paulo, Rio Claro (UNESP). 152 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. SEMAC (2011) Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente,do Planejamento, da Ciência e Tecnologia. Caderno Geoambiental das Regiões de Planejamento de MS – 5. Região do Pantanal. Governo do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo GrandeGoogle Scholar
  49. Silman M, Terborgh JW, Kiltie RA (2003) Population regulation of a dominant rain forest tree by a major seed predator. Ecology 84:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silva NM (2008) Dinâmica de uso das terras nos municípios de. Bonito, Jardim e Bodoquena (MS) e o estado de conservação dos recursos biológicos do Parque. Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena e de sua zona de amortecimento. Ph.D thesis, University of Sao Paulo, S.P. 235 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. Sowls LK (1997) Javelinas and other peccaries: their biology, management, and use, 2nd edn. Texas A&M University Press, College StationGoogle Scholar
  52. Terborgh J, Nuñez-Iturri G, Pitman NCA, Valverde FHC, Alvarez P, Swamy V, Pringle EG, Paine CET (2008) Tree recruitment in an empty forest. Ecology 89:1757–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tucker MA, Böhning-Gaese K, Fagan WF, Fryxell JM, Van Moorter B, Alberts SC, Ali AH, Allen AM, Attias N, Avgar T, Bartlam-Brooks H, Bayarbaatar B, Belant JL, Bertassoni A, Beyer D, Bidner L, van Beest FM, Blake S, Blaum N, Bracis C, Brown D, Nico de Bruyn PJ, Cagnacci F, Calabrese JM, Camilo-Alves C, Chamaillé-Jammes S, Chiaradia A, Davidson SC, Dennis T, DeStefano S, Diefenbach D, Hamilton ID, Fennessy J, Fichtel C, Fiedler W, Fischer C, Fischhoff I, Fleming CH, Ford AT, Fritz SA, Gehr B, Goheen JR, Gurarie E, Hebblewhite M, Heurich M, Mark Hewison AJ, Hof C, Hurme E, Isbell LA, Janssen R, Jeltsch F, Kaczensky P, Kane A, Kappeler PM, Kauffman M, Kays R, Kimuyu D, Koch F, Kranstauber B, LaPoint S, Leimgruber P, Linnell JDC, López-López P, Catherine Markham A, Mattisson J, Medici EP, Mellone U, Merrill E, Mourão G d M, Morato RG, Morellet N, Morrison TA, Díaz-Muñoz SL, Mysterud A, Nandintsetseg D, Nathan R, Niamir A, Odden J, O’Hara RB, Oliveira-Santos LGR, Olson KA, Patterson BD, de Paula RC, Pedrotti L, Reineking B, Rimmler M, Rogers TL, Rolandsen CM, Rosenberry CS, Rubenstein DI, Safi K, Saïd S, Sapir N, Sawyer H, Schmidt NM, Selva N, Sergiel A, Shiilegdamba E, Silva JP, Singh N, Solberg EJ, Spiegel O, Strand O, Sundaresan S, Ullmann W, Voigt U, Wall J, Wattles D, Wikelski M, Wilmers CC, Wilson JW, Wittemyer G, Zięba F, Zwijacz-Kozica T, Mueller T (2018) Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements. Science 359(6374):466–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Watson JEM, Iwamura T, Butt N (2013) Mapping vulnerability and conservation adaptation strategies under climate change. Nat Clim Chang 3:989–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Luisa S. P. Jorge
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alexine Keuroghlian
    • 3
  • Jennifer Bradham
    • 1
  • Júlia Emi F. Oshima
    • 4
  • Milton Cezar Ribeiro
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Peccary Project/IUCN/SSC Peccary Specialist GroupCampo GrandeBrazil
  4. 4.Programa de Pós Graduação em Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia, Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação (LEEC), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Rio ClaroBrazil

Personalised recommendations