White-Lipped Peccary Home-Range Size in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and México

  • José Fernando Moreira-RamírezEmail author
  • Rafael Reyna-Hurtado
  • Mircea Hidalgo-Mihart
  • Eduardo J. Naranjo
  • Milton C. Ribeiro
  • Rony García-Anleu
  • Roan McNab
  • Jeremy Radachowsky
  • Melvin Mérida
  • Marcos Briceño-Méndez
  • Gabriela Ponce-Santizo


The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795) is a social ungulate that lives in large groups and performs large movements across tropical forest searching for food and water. White-lipped peccaries are an important food source among rural communities. Nevertheless, excessive hunting has caused the extirpation of this species from several areas in the Neotropics where it was previously common. Throughout its range it is considered vulnerable according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, but the Mesoamerican population has decreased in the last 20 years at alarming rates. Using satellite GPS collars, kernel density estimate (KDE), minimum convex polygon (MCP), and the autocorrelated kernel density estimation (AKDE), we estimated the spatial requirements of four white-lipped peccary groups in three sites with different levels of hunting pressure in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and México. Our results showed that the home range estimated in non-hunted sites were smaller than in hunted sites. The 95% KDE home range for non-hunted areas ranged between 40 and 99 km2, substantially smaller than that of the hunted area at 140 km2. Similarly, the 95% AKDE area estimates for non-hunted sites ranged from 62 to 156 km2, while for the hunted site, the 95% AKDE estimate was 312 km2. In non-hunted sites, dry season home ranges were constrained to the close vicinity of water ponds, whereas during the rainy season white-lipped peccary groups were more mobile. In contrast, the home range was larger in the hunted site during the dry season compared with rainy season. Our results suggest that hunting pressure in the Maya Forest is probably affecting the behavior and ecology of the peccary group, causing them to move through larger areas with lower group size in hunted areas compared to non-hunted areas. We hope that these results encourage more studies focused on estimating white-lipped peccary home-range size in areas with hunting pressure and human activities.


Autocorrelated kernel density estimation Fixed kernel GPS telemetry Home range Hunting Minimum convex polygon Spatial ecology Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary 



To the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico for the grant offered to the first author to carry out his doctoral dissertation. We would like to give thanks to the American Society of Mammalogists, the Wildlife Conservation Society Research Fellowship Program, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Campeche, the Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT) for the support of the Mexican research part through the project number 182386 to RR-H, to McGill University for providing cameras, and to the Rufford Foundation and Idea Wild for financial support. We would also like to thank the National Council of Protected Areas of Guatemala, the National Commission of Protected Natural Areas of Mexico, the ejidatarios of Nuevo Becal, the National Institute of Anthropology and History and Las Guacamayas Biological Station for the support, permits, and facilities provided. Lastly, we would like to thank N. Arias, G. Castillo, A. Hettena, W. Martínez, K. Sánchez, K. Tut, P. Pérez, C. Umaña, Y. Polanco, A. Xol, R. Chatá, and anonymous reviewers for their help. MCR is funded by FAPESP (process 2013/50421-2) and receives the research grant from CNPq (process 312045/2013-1).


  1. Altrichter M et al (2012) Range-wide declines of a key Neotropical ecosystem architect, the Near Threatened white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari. Oryx 46:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvard MS, Robinson JG, Redford KH, Kaplan H (1997) The sustainability of subsistence hunting in the Neotropics. Conserv Biol 11:977–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrade Melo ÉR, Gadelha JR, da Silva M d ND, da Silva AP, Mendes AR (2015) Diversity, abundance and the impact of hunting on large mammals in two contrasting forest sites in northern amazon. Wildl Biol 21:234–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck H (2006) A review of peccary–palm interactions and their ecological ramifications across the Neotropics. J Mammal 87:519–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beyer HL (2012) Geospatial modelling environment (version
  6. Bodmer RE, Eisenberg JF, Redford KH (1997) Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammals. Conserv Biol 11:460–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briceño-Méndez M, Naranjo EJ, Mandujano S, Altricher M, Reyna-Hurtado R (2016) Responses of two sympatric species of peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu) to hunting in Calakmul, Mexico. Trop Conserv Sci 9:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calabrese JM, Fleming CH, Gurarie E (2016) ctmm: an R package for analyzing animal relocation data as a continuous-time stochastic process. Methods Ecol Evol 7:1124–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carrillo E, Saenz JC, Fuller TK (2002) Movements and activities of white-lipped peccaries in Corcovado. Biol Conserv 108:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Consejo Nacional de Áreas Protegidas, Wildlife Conservation Society (2015) Monitoreo de la gobernabilidad en la Reserva de Biosfera Maya. Actualización a 2014 de la versión de septiembre de 2013. San BenitoGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunn JE, Gipson PS (1977) Analysis of radio telemetry data in studies of home range. Biometrics 33:85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Endo W et al (2010) Game vertebrate densities in hunted and nonhunted forest sites in Manu National Park. Biotropica 42:251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Escamilla A, Sanvicente M, Sosa M, Galindo-Leal C (2000) Habitat mosaic, wildlife availability, and hunting in the tropical forest of Calakmul, Mexico. Conserv Biol 14:1592–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. ESRI (2011) ArcView GIS. Ver. 10.1. Environmental System Research Institute, RedlandsGoogle Scholar
  15. Fleming CH, Calabrese JM, Mueller T, Olson KA, Leimgruber P, Fagan WF (2014) From fine-scale foraging to home ranges: a semivariance approach to identifying movement modes across spatiotemporal scales. Am Nat 183:E154–E167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fleming CH, Fagan WF, Mueller T, Olson KA, Leimgruber P, Calabrese JM (2015) A new autocorrelated kernel density estimator reports. Ecology 96:1182–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fragoso JMV (1998) Home range and movement patterns of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) herds in the Northern Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica 30:458–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fragoso JMV (2004) A long-term study of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) population fluctuation in northern Amazonia. In: Silvius K, Bodmer RE, Fragoso JMV (eds) People in nature, wildlife conservation in South and Central America. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 286–296Google Scholar
  19. Fritz SA, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Purvis A (2009) Geographical variation in predictors of mammalian extinction risk: big is bad, but only in the tropics. Ecol Lett 12:538–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garcia-Gil G (2003) Colonización humana reciente y formación del paisaje agrario en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Calakmul, Campeche, México. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México, D. FGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris S, Cresswell WJ, Forde PG, Trewhella WJ, Woollard T, Wray S (1990) Home range analysis using radio tracking data: a review of problems and techniques particularly as applied to the study of mammals. Mammal Rev 20:97–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hofman MPG, Signer J, Hayward MW, Balkenhol N (2016) Spatial ecology of a herd of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in Belize using GPS telemetry: challenges and preliminary results. Therya 7:21–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacomo AT et al (2013) White-lipped peccary home-range size in a protected area and farmland in the central Brazilian grasslands. J Mammal 94:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kernohan BJ, Gitzen RA, Millspaugh JJ (2001) Analysis of animal space use and movement. In: Millspaugh JJ, Marzluff JM (eds) Radio tracking and animal populations. Academic, San Diego, pp 125–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP (2008) Importance of rare habitats and riparian zones in a tropical forest fragment: preferential use by Tayassu pecari, a wide-ranging frugivore. J Zool 275:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP, Longland WS (2004) Area use by white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Tayassu tajacu) in a tropical forest fragment. Biol Conserv 120:411–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP, Desbiez ALJ (2009a) The response of a landscape species, white-lipped peccaries, to seasonal resource fluctuations in a tropical wetland, the Brazilian pantanal. Int J Biodiver Conserv 1:87–97Google Scholar
  28. Keuroghlian A, Eaton DP, Desbiez AL (2009b) The response of a landscape species, white-lipped peccaries, to seasonal resource fluctuations in a tropical wetland, the Brazilian pantanal. Biodivers Conserv 1:87–97Google Scholar
  29. Keuroghlian A et al (2013) Tayassu pecari. In: IUCN 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1. Acceded 1 Aug 2017
  30. Keuroghlian A, Andrade Santos MDC, Eaton DP (2015) The effects of deforestation on white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) home range in the southern Pantanal. Mammalia 79:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martínez E, Galindo-Leal C (2002) La vegetación de Calakmul, Campeche, México: clasificación, descripción y distribución. Bol Soc Bot Méx 71:7–32Google Scholar
  32. Meyer N, Moreno R, Martínez-Morales MA, Reyna-Hurtado R (2018). Spatial ecology of a large and endangered tropical mammal: the white-lipped peccary in Darién, Panama. In: Reyna-Hurtado R, Chapman C (eds) Movement Ecology of Neotropical Forest Mammals. Springer NatureGoogle Scholar
  33. Millspaugh JJ, Marzluff JM (2001) Radio tracking and animal populations. Academic, San DiegoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moreira-Ramírez JF (2017) Movimientos del pecarí de labios blancos en relación con la disponibilidad de agua y cacería en la Selva Maya de Guatemala y México. Ph.D. Dissertation, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Campeche, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  35. Moreira-Ramírez JF, Lopez JE, García-Anleu R, Córdova F, Dubón T (2015) Tamaño, composición y patrones diarios de actividad de grupos de pecarí de labios blancos (Tayassu pecari) en el Parque Nacional Mirador-Río Azul, Guatemala. Therya 6:469–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moreira-Ramírez JF et al (2016) Importance of waterholes for white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) in the Selva Maya, Guatemala. Therya 7:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moßbrucker MA, Fleming CH, Ali Imron M, Satyawan P, Sumardi (2016) AKDE C home range size and habitat selection of Sumatran elephants. Wildl Res 43:566–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Naranjo EJ, Bodmer RE (2007) Source-sink systems and conservation of hunted ungulates in the Lacandon Forest, Mexico. Biol Conserv 138:412–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peres CA (1996) Population status of white-lipped Tayassu pecari and collared peccaries T. tajacu in hunted and unhunted Amazonian forests. Biol Conserv 77:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Peres CA (2000) Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests. Conserv Biol 14:240–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peres CA (2001) Synergistic effects on Amazonian forest vertebrates fragmentation. Conserv Biol 15:1490–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peres CA, Palacios E (2007) Basin wide effects of game harvest on vertebrate population densities in Amazonian forests: implications for animal mediated seed dispersal. Biotropica 39:304–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peres CA, Barlow J, Haugaasen T (2003) Vertebrate responses to surface wildfires in a central Amazonian forest. Oryx 37:97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pulliam DW (1988) Sources, sinks, and population regulation. Am Soc Nat 132:652–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. R Development Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna Scholar
  46. R Development Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria., 2009
  47. Reyna-Hurtado R (2009) Conservation status of the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) outside the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Campeche, Mexico: a synthesis. Trop Conserv Sci 2:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Reyna-Hurtado R, Tanner GW (2007) Ungulate relative abundance in hunted and non-hunted sites in Calakmul Forest (Southern Mexico). Biodivers Conserv 16:743–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reyna-Hurtado R, Rojas-Flores E, Tanner GW (2009) Home range and habitat preferences of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico. J Mammal 90:1199–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reyna-Hurtado R, Naranjo E, Chapman C a, Tanner GW (2010) Hunting and the conservation of a social ungulate: the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari in Calakmul, Mexico. Oryx 44:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reyna-Hurtado R, Chapman CA, Calme S, Pedersen EJ (2012) Searching in heterogeneous and limiting environments: foraging strategies of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). J Mammal 93:124–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reyna-Hurtado R et al (2014) White-lipped peccaries with skin problems in the Maya Forest. Suiform Soundings 13:29–31Google Scholar
  53. Reyna-Hurtado R et al (2016) What ecological and anthropogenic factors affect group size in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari)? Biotropica 48:246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Reyna-Hurtado R et al (2017) White-lipped peccary in Mesoamerica: status, threats and conservation actions. Suiform Soundings 15:31–35Google Scholar
  55. Sanderson EW, Jaiteh M, Levy M a, Redford KH, Wannebo AV, Woolmer G (2002) The human footprint and the last of the wild. Bioscience 52:891–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Santos-fita D, Naranjo EJ, Rangel-salazar JL (2012) Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Seaman E, Powell RA (1996) An evaluation of the accuracy of kernel density. Ecology 77:2075–2085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Seaman DE, Millspaugh JJ, Kernohan BJ, Brundige GC, Raedeke KJ, Gitzen RA (1999) Effects of sample size on kernel home range estimates. J Wildl Manag 63:739–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sikes RS, Gannon WL, Care A, Committee U, Journal S (2011) Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. J Mammal 92:235–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wikelski M, Kays R (2017) Movebank: archive, analysis and sharing of animal movement data.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Fernando Moreira-Ramírez
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rafael Reyna-Hurtado
    • 3
    • 4
  • Mircea Hidalgo-Mihart
    • 5
  • Eduardo J. Naranjo
    • 6
  • Milton C. Ribeiro
    • 7
  • Rony García-Anleu
    • 2
  • Roan McNab
    • 2
  • Jeremy Radachowsky
    • 8
  • Melvin Mérida
    • 2
  • Marcos Briceño-Méndez
    • 6
  • Gabriela Ponce-Santizo
    • 2
  1. 1.El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Ciudad Industrial, LermaCiudad de CampecheMéxico
  2. 2.Wildlife Conservation Society, Programa para GuatemalaFlores. PeténGuatemala
  3. 3.El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)Department of Biodiversity ConservationLermaMéxico
  4. 4.The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)BronxUSA
  5. 5.División Académica de Ciencias BiológicasUniversidad Juárez Autónoma de TabascoVillahermosaMexico
  6. 6.El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/nSan Cristóbal de Las CasasMexico
  7. 7.Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Estadual PaulistaRio ClaroBrazil
  8. 8.Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations