Variable Rate Technology and Variable Rate Application

  • Latief Ahmad
  • Syed Sheraz Mahdi


In a field comprising of different or a particular species of crop, there may be noticed variability in the fertilizer need, irrigation requirement, seed rate, chemical requirement (pesticides, herbicides, weedicides), etc. However, it is a difficult task to detect the individual requirements of a crop by mere observation; therefore, precision agriculture puts forth a technology known as variable rate technology (VRT) that helps in easy and accurate detection of individual requirements of each crop thereby reducing human errors. VRT refers to a technology that enables variable rate application of materials in precision agriculture. It is the ability to adapt parameters on machine to apply, for instance, seed or fertilizer, according to the exact variation in plant growth or soil nutrients and type. The chapter looks into working of different variable rate technologies and their application in precision agriculture.


Variable rate application Map-based VRA Sensor-based VRA Lime VRA Fertilizer VRA 


  1. Grisso, R. D., Alley, M. M., Thomason, W. E., Holshouser, D. L., & Roberson, G. T. (2011). Precision farming tools: Variable-rate application. London: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  2. Patil, V. C., & Shanwad, U. K. (2009, December). Relevance of precision farming to Indian agriculture. In Second national conference on agro-informatics and precision farming.Google Scholar
  3. Sökefeld, M. (2010). Variable rate technology for herbicide application herbicide application. InPrecision crop protection-the challenge and use of heterogeneity (pp. 335–347). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Latief Ahmad
    • 1
  • Syed Sheraz Mahdi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of AgronomySher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of KashmirSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations