Strategy Formation in Government

  • Jan-Erik JohansonEmail author


Johanson portrays an image of strategic management as government activity in which public administration plays an important role. Strategic planning and evaluation, administrative reform and government regulation are the most important tool of government in advancing it’s strategic goals. The new public management is not the only option for government reform. The regulation is not only government responsibility. Economy and civil society offer possibilities of self-regulation.


Strategic planning Regulation Administrative reform 


  1. Archibugi, F. (2008). Planning theory: From the political debate to the methodological reconstruction. Milano: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Aucoin, P. (1990). Administrative reform in public management: Paradigms, principles, paradoxes and pendulums. Governance, 3(2), 115–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin, R., Cave, M., & Lodge, M. (2012). Understanding regulation: Theory, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bemelmans-Videc, M., Rist, R. C., & Vedung, E. (2017). Carrots, sticks & sermons: Policy instruments and their evaluation. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Black, J. (2002). Critical reflections on regulation (Discussion Paper, 4th ed.). London: Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation, London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar
  6. Breyer, S. (1982). Regulation and reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  7. Denhardt, R. B., & Denhardt, J. V. (2000). The new public service: Serving rather than steering. Public Administration Review, 60(6), 549–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dror, Y. (1976). Strategies for administrative reform. In A. Leemans (Ed.), The management of change in government (pp. 126–141). The Hague: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. European Space Agency. (2018, September 3). How much does it cost? Available: Last update 3 September 2018.
  10. Feng, E. (2017, November 30). China’s mixed messages to working women. Financial Times.Google Scholar
  11. Fincher, L. H. (2016). Leftover women: The resurgence of gender inequality in China. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  12. Frederickson, H. G. (1980). New public administration. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gamble, A. (2000). Economic governance. In J. Pierre (Ed.), Debating governance (pp. 110–137). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hammerschmid, G., Van De Walle, S., Andrews, R., & Mostafa, A. M. S. (2017). New public management reforms in Europe and their effects: Findings from a 20-country top executive survey. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 20(1), 101–113. Google Scholar
  15. Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2018). World happiness report 2018. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network.Google Scholar
  16. Henry, N. (1975). Paradigms of public administration. Public Administration Review, 35(4), 378–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hill, M., & Hupe, P. (2002). Implementing public policy: Governance in theory and practice. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Hill, M., & Hupe, P. (2006). Analysing policy processes as multiple governance: Accountability in social policy. Policy & Politics, 34(3), 557–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hood, C. (1991). A public management for all seasons? Public Administration, 69(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howell, E. (2018, September 3). International space station: Facts, history & tracking. Available: Last update 3 September 2018.
  21. Isserman, A. M. (1984). Projection, forecast, and plan on the future of population forecasting. Journal of the American Planning Association, 50(2), 208–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johanson, J., Pekkola, E., & Husman, P. (2017). Government programme as a strategy—The Finnish experience. Administrative Sciences, 7(2), 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jordana, J., & Levi-Faur, D. (2004). The politics of regulation: Institutions and regulatory reforms for the age of governance. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  24. Kela. (2016). From idea to experiment. Report on universal basic income experiment in Finland. Helsinki: Social Insurance Institution of Finland.Google Scholar
  25. Kiser, L., & Ostrom, E. (1982). The three worlds of political action. In Strategies of political inquiry. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  26. Kisner, M., & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2017). The provenance of public management and its future: Is public management here to stay? International Journal of Public Sector Management, 30(6–7), 532–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levi-Faur, D. (2013). The odyssey of the regulatory state: From a “thin” monomorphic concept to a “thick” and polymorphic concept. Law & Policy, 35(1–2), 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Light, P. C. (2006). The tides of reform revisited: Patterns in making government work, 1945–2002. Public Administration Review, 66(1), 6–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Manning, N., & Parison, N. (2003). International public administration reform: Implications for the Russian Federation. Washinton, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marini, F. (1971). Toward a new public administration: The minnowbrook perspective. London: Chandler Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. McGinnis, M. D. (2011). An introduction to IAD and the language of the Ostrom workshop: A simple guide to a complex framework. Policy Studies Journal, 39(1), 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning: Reconceiving roles for planning, plans, planners. New York and Toronto: Free Press and Maxwell Macmillan Canada.Google Scholar
  33. Moore, M. (1995). Creating public value: Strategic management in government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Moore, M. (2013). Recognizing public value. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Moynihan, D. (2018). A great schism approaching? Towards a micro and macro public administration. Journal of Behavioral Public Administration, 1(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Myers, D., & Kitsuse, A. (2000). Constructing the future in planning: A survey of theories and tools. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 19(3), 221–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mykkänen, J. (2016). Strategic Government Program. Helsinki: Talouspoliittinen arviointineuvosto.Google Scholar
  38. Niiniluoto, I. (1993). The aim and structure of applied research. Erkenntnis, 38(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Osborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing government: How to entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. Reading, MA and Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  40. Osborne, S. P. (2006). The new public governance? Public Management Review, 8(3), 377–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Osborne, S. P., Radnor, Z., & Nasi, G. (2013). A new theory for public service management? Toward a (public) service-dominant approach. The American Review of Public Administration, 43(2), 135–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ostrom, E. (2002). Common-pool resources and institutions: Toward a revised theory. Handbook of Agricultural Economics, 2, 1315–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(1), 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Poister, T. (2003). Measuring performance in public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Pollitt, C., & Bouckaert, G. (2017). Public management reform: A comparative analysis-into the age of austerity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Pyun, H., & Gamassou, C. E. (2018). Looking for public administration theories? Public Organization Review, 18(2), 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schmidhuber, M., Cruzen, C., & Kehr, J. (2013). Space operations: Experience, mission systems, and advanced concepts. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Simon, H. A. (1996). The sciences of the artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  49. Steurer, R. (2013). Disentangling governance: A synoptic view of regulation by government, business and civil society. Policy Sciences, 46(4), 387–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. United Nations. (2012). International day of happiness (66/281 ed.). New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  51. Vakkuri, J., Meklin, P., & Oulasvirta, L. (2006). Emergence of markets-institutional change of municipal auditing in Finland. Nordic Organization Studies, 8, 1–31.Google Scholar
  52. Vedung, E. (2010). Four waves of evaluation diffusion. Evaluation, 16(3), 263–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations