Modeling and Control of Inverter-Interfaced Wind Farms

  • Nilanjan Ray Chaudhuri


Modeling and control of Type 3 and Type 4 wind turbines are introduced in this chapter. Both of these wind energy conversion systems are known as variable-speed wind turbines. The Type 3 version, also known as the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based technology, consists of a wind turbine, induction generator, and two partially rated back-to-back voltage source converters (VSCs). The modeling of turbine and induction generator are first presented. The tie-reactances of the VSCs are also integrated in the model. This is followed by the description of converter controls. Both grid-connected mode and isolated mode of controls are elaborated. Finally, the modeling and control of a Type 4 wind turbine based on permanent magnet synchronous generator and full-converter system are discussed.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, P.M., Bose, A.: Stability simulation of wind turbine systems. IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus Syst. PAS-102(12), 3791–3795 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aziz, A., Amanullah, M., Vinayagam, A., Stojcevski, A.: Modelling and comparison of generic type 4 WTG with EMT type 4 WTG model. In: 2015 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), pp. 1–6 (2015).
  3. 3.
    Aziz, A., Amanullah, M.T.O., Stojcevski, A.: Modelling and analysis of type 4 wind turbine generator system for utilization in frequency regulation studies. In: 2015 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), pp. 1–6 (2015).
  4. 4.
    Chinchilla, M., Arnaltes, S., Burgos, J.C.: Control of permanent-magnet generators applied to variable-speed wind-energy systems connected to the grid. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 21(1), 130–135 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Datta, R., Ranganathan, V.T.: Variable-speed wind power generation using doubly fed wound rotor induction machine-a comparison with alternative schemes. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 17(3), 414–421 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heier, S.: Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems. Wiley, Chichester (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kazmierkowski, M.P., Krishnan, R., Blaabjerg, F.: Control in Power Electronics, Selected Problems. Academic press, Amsterdam (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kundur, P.: Power System Stability and Control. The EPRI Power System Engineering Series. McGraw-Hill, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liserre, M., Cardenas, R., Molinas, M., Rodriguez, J.: Overview of multi-MW wind turbines and wind parks. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 58(4), 1081–1095 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mei, F.: Small-signal modelling and analysis of doubly-fed induction generators in wind power applications. Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College London, 2008Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Muyeen, S.M., Tamura, J., Murata, T.: Stability Augmentation of a Grid-Connected Wind Farm. Springer, Dordrecht (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nicolau, V.: On PID Controller Design by Combining Pole Placement Technique with Symmetrical Optimum Criterion. Mathematical Problems in Engineering. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Cairo, pp. 1–8 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pena, R., Clare, J.C., Asher, G.M.: Doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters and its application to variable-speed wind-energy generation. IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 143(3), 231–241 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pena, R., Clare, J.C., Asher, G.M.: A doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters supplying an isolated load from a variable speed wind turbine. IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 143(5), 380–387 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Song, Y.D., Dhinakaran, B.: Nonlinear variable speed control of wind turbines. In: Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications (Cat. No.99CH36328), vol. 1, pp. 814–819 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trevisan, A.S., El-Deib, A., Gagnon, R., Mahseredjian, J., Fecteau, M.: Field validated generic EMT-type model of a full converter wind turbine based on a gearless externally excited synchronous generator. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery pp. 1–1 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yazdani, A., Iravani, R.: A neutral-point clamped converter system for direct-drive variable-speed wind power unit. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 21(2), 596–607 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yogarathinam, A., Kaur, J., Chaudhuri, N.R.: Impact of inertia and effective short circuit ratio on control of frequency in weak grids interfacing LCC-HVDC and DFIG-based wind farms. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 32(4), 2040–2051 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zeni, L., Morgans, I., Hansen, A.D., Serensen, P.E., Kjœr, P.C.: Generic models of wind turbine generators for advanced applications in a VSC-based offshore HVDC network. In: 10th IET International Conference on AC and DC Power Transmission (ACDC 2012), pp. 1–6 (2012).

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nilanjan Ray Chaudhuri
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations