Advertisement

The Influence of European State Aid Law on the Design of Support Schemes for Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources in Germany and Other Member States

  • Markus KahlesEmail author
  • Fabian Pause
Chapter

Abstract

Since 2014, the EU Commission’s Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014–2020 (EEAG) have become the main driver for the progressing convergence of support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) in different Member States. The key requirements for the design of RES electricity support schemes are, inter alia, the introduction of auctions to determine the amount of aid and its payment in form of a market premium. These State aid requirements have led to some major changes in the support schemes of different Member States and raised concerns whether the EU Commission is overstepping its competencies. This article summarizes this development with a special focus on the German support scheme (EEG 2014 and EEG 2017) and gives an outlook on the likely future situation for RES electricity support schemes under the currently discussed European legal framework for the years 2021–2030.

References

  1. Assion. (2015). Assion, Paradigmenwechsel im neuen EEG 2014: Was ändert sich für Photovoltaikanlagen? EurUP, pp. 40–46.Google Scholar
  2. Belgium. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 8462 final, 08.12.2016, State Aid SA.45867 (2016/N) – Belgium.Google Scholar
  3. BMWi. (2015). Ausschreibungen für die Förderung von Erneuerbare-Energien-Anlagen, Eckpunktepapier, Stand Juli 2015.Google Scholar
  4. BNetzA. (2016a). Bundesnetzagentur, Ergebnisse der geöffneten Ausschreibung für Solaranlagen mit dem Königreich Dänemark vom 23.11.2016, Hintergrundpapier, Stand: 21.12.2016.Google Scholar
  5. BNetzA. (2016b): Bundesnetzagentur, Ergebnisse der geöffneten Ausschreibung für Solaranlagen mit dem Königreich Dänemark vom 23. November 2016, Hintergrundpapier, Stand: 21.12.2016.Google Scholar
  6. BNetzA. (2017a). Bundesnetzagentur, Ergebnisse der Ausschreibung für Windenergieanlagen an Land vom 1. August 2017, Hintergrundpapier, 04.09.2017.Google Scholar
  7. BNetzA. (2017b). Ergebnisse der Ausschreibung für Windenergieanlagen an Land vom 1. Mai 2017, Hintergrundpapier, 19.06.2017.Google Scholar
  8. BNetzA. (2018). Ergebnisse der gemeinsamen Ausschreibung von Wind- und Solaranlagen, press release, 12.04.2018.Google Scholar
  9. Bulgaria. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 5205 final, 04.08.2016, State Aid SA.44840 (2016/NN) – Bulgaria.Google Scholar
  10. CEER. (2017). Status review of renewable support schemes in Europe, 11.04.2017, Ref: C16-SDE TF-56-03.Google Scholar
  11. COM. (2014a). European Commission, C(2014) 8786 final, 25.11.2014, State aid SA.33995 (ex 2013/NN) – Germany EEG 2012 – Reform of the Renewable Energy Law.Google Scholar
  12. COM. (2014b). European Commission, C(2014) 5081, 23.07.2014, State aid SA.38632 (2014/N) – Germany EEG 2014 – Reform of the Renewable Energy Law.Google Scholar
  13. COM. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 8789 final, 20.12.2016, State aid SA.45461 (2016/N) – Germany EEG 2017 – Reform of the Renewable Energy Law.Google Scholar
  14. Czech Republic. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 5479 final, 22.08.2016, State Aid SA.43182 (2015/N) – Czech Republic.Google Scholar
  15. Danish Energy Agency. (2016a). Danish Energy Agency, historically low prices offered in Danish tender of aid for solar PV, News December 2016, https://ens.dk/en/our-services/current-tenders/pilot-tender-price-premium-electricity-solar-pv
  16. Danish Energy Agency. (2016b). Pilot tender of price premium for electricity from solar PV. https://ens.dk/en/our-services/current-tenders/pilot-tender-price-premium-electricity-solar-pv
  17. Denmark. (2014). European Commission, C(2014) 8004 corr., 24.10.2014, State aid No SA.36204 2013/N – Denmark.Google Scholar
  18. Denmark. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 8678 final, 24.12.2016, State Aid SA.46882 (2016/N) – Denmark.Google Scholar
  19. ECJ. (2001). European Court of Justice, C-379/98, 13.03.2001, PreussenElektra.Google Scholar
  20. ECJ. (2013). European Court of Justice, C-262/12, 19.12.2013, Vent De Colère.Google Scholar
  21. EGC. (2014). General Court of the European Union (EGC), T-251/11, 11.12.2014, Republic of Austria v European Commission.Google Scholar
  22. EGC. (2016). General Court of the European Union (EGC), T-47/15, 10.05.2016, Federal Republic of Germany v European Commission.Google Scholar
  23. Ehrmann. (2016). Ehrmann, Beihilfecharakter des EEG 2012, NVwZ 2016, pp. 997–999.Google Scholar
  24. Estonia. (2014). European Commission, C(2014) 8106 final, 28.10.2014, State aid SA.36023 (2014/NN) – Estonia.Google Scholar
  25. France. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 8605 final, 12.12.2016, Aide d’État SA.46898 (2016/N) – France; C(2016) 8604 final, 12.12.2016, Aide d’État SA.46655 (2016/NN) – France; C(2016) 8498 final, 12.12.2016, Aide d’État SA.43780 (2015/N) – France.Google Scholar
  26. France. (2017). European Commission, C(2017) 1092 final, 10.02.2017, Aide d’État SA.46259 (2016/N) – France; C(2017) 3135 final, 05.05.2017, Aide d’État SA.47623 (2017/N) – France; C(2017) 3127 cor, 05.05.2017, Aide d’État SA.47205 (2016/N) – France.Google Scholar
  27. Frenz. (2016). Frenz, Anmerkung zu EuG, Urt. v. 10.05.2016 – T 47/15, DVBl 2016, pp. 847–848.Google Scholar
  28. Greece. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 7272 final, 16.11.2016, State Aid SA.44666 – Greece.Google Scholar
  29. Hungary. (2017). European Commission, Press release, 11.07.2017, State aid: Commission approves Hungarian support scheme for renewable electricity, SA. 44076 (decision text not yet published).Google Scholar
  30. Italy. (2016). European Commission, C(2016)2726 final, 28.04.2016, State Aid SA.43756 (2015/N) – Italy.Google Scholar
  31. Kahles/Müller. (2015). Kahles/Müller, Wegfall der EEG-Förderung bei negativen Preisen, Würzburger Berichte zum Umweltenergierecht Nr. 13, 08.06.2015.Google Scholar
  32. Kahles/Pause. (2015). Kahles/Pause, Öffnung nationaler Fördersysteme für Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien aus anderen Mitgliedstaaten, EuZW 2015, 776.Google Scholar
  33. Kröger. (2016a). Kröger, Das EEG 2014 im Lichte der Europäisierung des Rechts der Erneuerbaren Energien, NuR 2016, pp. 85–90.Google Scholar
  34. Kröger. (2016b). Kröger, Anmerkung EuG, Urteil vom 10.05.2016, T-47/15 – Deutschland/Kommission, ZUR 2016, pp. 417–420.Google Scholar
  35. Ludwigs. (2016). Ludwigs, Die Förderung erneuerbarer Energien nach dem EEG 2012 auf dem Prüfstand des Europäischen Beihilferechts, EurUP 2016, pp. 238–243.Google Scholar
  36. Luxembourg. (2014). European Commission, C(2014, 6433 final, 16.09.2014, State aid SA.37232 2014/NN – Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  37. Luxembourg. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 5433 final, 26.08.2016, State Aid SA. 43128 (2015/N) – Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  38. Malta. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 5432 final, 26.08.2016, State Aid SA. 43995 (2015/N) – Malta.Google Scholar
  39. Martinez. (2016). Martinez, Den europäischen Beihilfebegriff ernst nehmen, AUR 2016, p. 218.Google Scholar
  40. Michl. (2016). Michl, Der lange Arm des Staates – zur beihilferechtlichen Einordnung der EEG-Umlage, EurUP 2016, pp. 259–262.Google Scholar
  41. Müller. (2016). Müller, in: Degenhart/Schomerus, EEG 2014 – Konsequenzen für die Finanzwirtschaft, pp. 45–101.Google Scholar
  42. Müller/Kahl/Sailer. (2014). Müller/Kahl/Sailer, Das neue EEG 2014, ER 2014, pp. 139–146.Google Scholar
  43. Müller-Terpitz/Ouertani. (2016). Müller-Terpitz/Ouertani, Das EEG 2014 im Licht des EU-Beihilfenrechts, EnWZ 2016, 536.Google Scholar
  44. Overkamp. (2016). Overkamp, Europäisches Beihilferecht contra nationaler Klimaschutz, EurUP 2016, pp. 263–266.Google Scholar
  45. Pause. (2015). Pause, Die Beihilfeleitlinien der Kommission für den Energie- und Umweltbereich – eine kritische Würdigung. In Müller/Kahl, Erneuerbare Energien in Europa, pp. 219–251.Google Scholar
  46. Poland. (2017). European Commission, Press release, 13.12.2017, State aid: Commission approves PLN 40 billion (around €9.4 billion) Polish support scheme for renewable energy, SA. 43697 (decision text not yet published).Google Scholar
  47. Portugal. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 2874 final, 04.05.2016, State Aid SA.41694 (2015/N) – Portugal.Google Scholar
  48. Rogala. (2016). Rogala, The notion of “state resources” in EU state aid law and the German Renewable Energy Act of 2012, ZEuS 2016, pp. 271–300.Google Scholar
  49. Romania. (2015). European Commission, C(2015) 2886 cor, 04.05.2015, State Aid SA. 37177 (2015/NN) – Romania.Google Scholar
  50. Schaefer. (2016). Schaefer, Zur beihilferechtlichen Relevanz der EEG-Umlage, EurUP 2016, p. 244.Google Scholar
  51. Schmidt-Preuß. (2016). Schmidt-Preuß, Das EuG-Urteil zum EEG 2012: Kein Hemmnis für die Energiewende, EurUP 2016, pp. 251–256.Google Scholar
  52. Schroeder. (2015). Schroeder, EU-Beihilfenverbot und Staatlichkeit der Mittel, EuZW 2015, pp. 207–212.Google Scholar
  53. Slovenia. (2016). European Commission, C(2016) 6592 final, 10.10.2016, State Aid SA. 41998 (2015/N) – Slovenia.Google Scholar
  54. Soltész. (2014). Soltész, Das neue europäische Beihilferecht, NJW 2014, 3128.Google Scholar
  55. Spain. (2017). European Commission, C(2017) 7384 final, 10.11.2017, State Aid SA.40348 (2015/NN) – Spain.Google Scholar
  56. Stöbener de Mora. (2016). Stöbener de Mora, Das Urteil des EuG zum Beihilfecharakter des EEG 2012, EuZW 2016, p. 539.Google Scholar
  57. The Netherlands. (2015). European Commission, C(2015) 2356 final, 07.04.2015, State Aid SA.39399 (2015/N) – The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  58. United Kingdom. (2014). European Commission, C(2014) 5079 final, 23.07.2014, State aid SA.36196 (2014/N) – United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  59. Vestager. (2016). Letter from M. Vestager to H. Albers, President of the German Wind Energy Association BWE, https://www.wind-energie.de/presse/meldungen/2016/ausschreibungen-eu-wettbewerbskommissarin-zum-thema-de-minimis-0
  60. Wustlich. (2014). Wustlich, Das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz 2014, NVwZ 2014, pp. 1113–1121.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stiftung Umweltenergierecht (Foundation for Environmental Energy Law)WürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations