Ukraine: The Same Political Environment as in the Middle East and North Africa

  • Luiz Alberto Moniz Bandeira


The conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa have occurred in the same international political environment as those in Ukraine. They reflected the heightening international tensions, particularly between Russia and the United States. And a direct connection can be made between all these conflicts and American foreign policy. First, George W. Bush destabilized the Middle East with his adventures in Iraq and Afghanistan, and then Obama continued to implement neocon policy by supporting the removal of Gaddafi in Libya and the intended removal of Assad in Syria. Both presidents went ahead with this policy despite numerous domestic and foreign warnings, and it could only lead to one thing: chaos and the rise of Islamic extremism. Yemen was pulled into a Civil War. Egypt only narrowly escaped total chaos because of the coup by el-Sisi, and the conflict in Iraq and Syria gave rise to the newest iteration of Islamic extremism, an offspring of the “creature” the United States and the CIA had created in the 1980s to fight communism in Afghanistan. Da’ish was born, sweeping over large parts of Iraq and Syria with its reign of terror.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luiz Alberto Moniz Bandeira
    • 1
  1. 1.Emeritus professor for HistoryUniversity of BrasíliaSt. Leon-RotGermany

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