Ocular Sarcoidosis

  • Padmamalini Mahendradas
  • Ankush Kawali
  • Sujay Chauhan
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease that presents a diagnostic challenge because of its varied clinical presentations. It is important to distinguish sarcoidosis from tuberculosis and other noninfectious posterior and panuveitis since the clinical manifestations of these entities are quite similar. Various imaging modalities can be used to diagnose and monitor the treatment response of sarcoidosis in the eye. This review article highlights the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, investigations, differential diagnosis and management options of sarcoidosis along with the roll of anterior segment and fundus photography, confocal microscopy, fundus autofluorescence, fundus fluorescein angiography including wide-field angiography, indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography in the diagnosis and management of eye manifestations of sarcoidosis.


Sarcoidosis Fundus photography Fundus autofluorescence Fundus fluorescein angiography Indocyanine green angiography Optical coherence tomography Optical coherence tomography angiography 


Compliance with Ethical Requirements

Padmamalini Mahendradas, Anush Kawali, and Sujay Chauhan declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study. No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padmamalini Mahendradas
    • 1
  • Ankush Kawali
    • 1
  • Sujay Chauhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Narayana Nethralaya, Department of Uveitis and Ocular ImmunologyBangaloreIndia

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