Advertisement

Non-Arctic State Observers of the Arctic Council: Perspectives and Views

  • Diddy R. M. HitchinsEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Polar Sciences book series (SPPS)

Abstract

The 1996 Ottawa Declaration establishing the Arctic Council allowed for three categories of Observers within the body: non-Arctic states; intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary organizations and non-governmental organizations that the Arctic Council deemed might contribute to its work. At the first opportunity during the Iqaluit Ministerial in 1998, four non-Arctic state Observers, three intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary organizations, and four non-governmental organizations were admitted as Observers. There are now a total of thirty-nine accredited Observers within the Arctic Council. What has brought about this major increase? Who are these Observers and what roles do they play within the organization? What are their perspectives on the operation of the body and the challenges of leadership within it? Have their roles and perspectives changed over the last four Chairmanships? What have been the nature of their interactions with the Chair? This chapter will endeavor to address each of these questions.

Keywords

Observer Arctic Council Non-Arctic state Working groups Senior Arctic Officials Chairmanship 

References

  1. AMAP. (2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) Overview Report. Google Scholar
  2. Arctic Council. (1996a). Declaration on the establishment of the Arctic Council. Ottawa.Google Scholar
  3. Arctic Council. (1996b). Joint communique of the governments of the Arctic countries on the establishment of the Arctic Council. Ottawa, September 19, 1996.Google Scholar
  4. Arctic Council. (1998). Arctic Council rules of procedure (as adopted by the Arctic Council at the First Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, Iqaluit, Canada, September 17 – 18, 1998).Google Scholar
  5. Arctic Council. (2006). Common objectives and priorities for the Norwegian, Danish and Swedish chairmanships of the Arctic Council (2006–2012).Google Scholar
  6. Arctic Council. (2008). Observer states’ joint statement, 2008. Presented at the Arctic Council SAO meeting, Kautokeino, Norway, 19–20 November 2008.Google Scholar
  7. Arctic Council. (Arctic Council Secretariat 2011a). Senior Arctic Officials (SAO) Report to Ministers, Nuuk, Greenland.Google Scholar
  8. Arctic Council. (2011b). Nuuk Declaration on the occasion of the seventh ministerial meeting of the Arctic Council, 12 May 2011, Nuuk, Greenland.Google Scholar
  9. Arctic Council. (2013a). Arctic Council observer manual for subsidiary bodies, as adopted by the Arctic Council at the eighth Arctic Council ministerial meeting, Kiruna, Sweden, May 15, 2013.Google Scholar
  10. Arctic Council. (2013b). Arctic Council rules of procedure (Revised by the Arctic Council ministerial meeting, Kiruna, Sweden, May 15, 2013).Google Scholar
  11. Arctic Council. (2013c). Kiruna Declaration. Google Scholar
  12. Arctic Council. (2013d). Canadian chairmanship (Arctic Council secretariat, 2013-05-15). Document outlining the priorities for the second Canadian chairmanship of the Arctic Council from 2013–2015.Google Scholar
  13. Arctic Council. (2015). U.S. Chairmanship brochure for the second U.S. Chairmanship 2015–2017.Google Scholar
  14. Arctic Council. (2016). The United Kingdom’s (UK) 2016 Observer Review Report. Google Scholar
  15. Arctic Council. (Arctic Council Secretariat 2017a–05 -11). Declaration of the Foreign Ministers of the Arctic States at the 10th Ministerial meeting of the Arctic Council, held in Fairbanks, Alaska, 10–11 May, 2017.Google Scholar
  16. Arctic Council. (2017b). Finnish Chairmanship (2017–05) Document outlining the priorities for the second Finnish Chairmanship of the Arctic Council from 2017–2019.Google Scholar
  17. Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. (1991). Declaration on the protection of Arctic environment. Rovaniemi Finland.Google Scholar
  18. Axworthy, T. S., Koivurova, T., & Hasanat, W. (Eds.). (2012). The Arctic Council: Its place in the future of Arctic governance. Toronto: Munk Gordon Arctic Security Program.Google Scholar
  19. Graczyk, P., & Koivurova, T. (2014). A new era in the Arctic Council’s external relations? Broader consequences of the Nuuk observer rules for Arctic governance. Polar Record, 50(254), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ilulissat Declaration. (2008). Arctic Ocean Conference, Ilulissat, Greenland, 27–29 May, 2008.Google Scholar
  21. Inuit Circumpolar Council. (2015). A meaningful & principled approach for Inuit engaging Arctic Council observers. Google Scholar
  22. Knecht, S. (2015). New observers queuing up: Why the Arctic Council should expand – and expel. The Arctic Institute. www.thearcticinstitute.org/new-observers-queuing-up/
  23. Koivurova, T., & Smieszek, M. (2017). The Arctic Council: Between continuity and change. In W. P. Lackenbauer, H. Nicol, & W. Greaves (Eds.), One Arctic: the Arctic Council and Circumpolar Governance (pp. 1–26). Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee.Google Scholar
  24. Lackenbauer, W. P., Nicol, H., & Greaves, W. (Eds.). (2017). One Arctic: the Arctic Council and circumpolar governance. Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee.Google Scholar
  25. Nord, D. C. (2017). Leadership from the Chair: The Experience of Three Successive Chairmanships of the Arctic Council. In W. P. Lackenbauer, H. Nicol, & W. Greaves (Eds.), One Arctic: the Arctic Council and Circumpolar Governance (pp. 27–45). Ottawa., 2017:: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee.Google Scholar
  26. Steinberg, P. E., & Dodds, K. (2013). The Arctic Council after Kiruna. Polar Record, 51(1), 108–110, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. UK, Polar Regions Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. (2013). Adapting to change: UK policy towards the Arctic. www.gov.uk/government/publication.Google Scholar
  28. UK, Polar Regions Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. (2018). Beyond the Ice: UK policy towards the Arctic. www.gov.uk/government/publication.Google Scholar
  29. Young, O. R., Kim, J. D., & Kim, Y. H. (Eds.). 2014. The Arctic in world affairs: A North Pacific dialogue on international cooperation in a changing Arctic, Korea Maritime Institute and East West Center.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Alaska AnchorageAnchorageUSA

Personalised recommendations