Advertisement

Gambling Disorder as a Clinical Phenomenon

  • Christopher J. Hunt
  • Alexander BlaszczynskiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The exact origins of gambling have faded into obscurity but its presence dates back to antiquity. Archaeological findings offer evidence of games of chance played circa 4000 years BC, with many forms laying the foundation for subsequent gambling where items of values were exchanged on the outcome of chance events. Societal acceptance of gambling has fluctuated from extremes of widespread indulgence to attempted suppression, the latter in response to the social and economic impacts of excessive gambling. In the early 1900s, psychological theories were applied in an attempt to explain excessive gambling and operationally define the condition as a clinical disorder. The inclusion of ‘pathological gambling’ within ICD-9 in 1975 and DSM-III in 1980 consolidated the clinical status of the disorder, but debate on symptomatology and its classification as an impulse control or addictive behaviour remains. Although traditionally the focus has been directed predominately towards establishing diagnostic criteria and developing instruments to measure prevalence rates, contemporary efforts are turning their attention to assessing gambling-related harms across the full spectrum of gambling behaviours. This is reflected in the growing use of the term ‘problem gambling’ to refer to gambling behaviour that is resulting in harm and is consistent with a wider public health harm minimization approach that complements the clinical management of gambling disorders.

Keywords

Gambling history Gambling disorder DSM-5 Gambling phenomenology Gambling harm 

References

  1. 1.
    Scarne J. Scarne’s new complete guide to gambling. London: Constable; 1961.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schwartz D. Roll the bones: the history of gambling. New York: Gotham Books; 2006.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steinmetz A. The gaming table: its votaries and victims in all times and countries, especially in England and France. Publication No. 96, Patterson Smith Reprint Series in Criminology Law Enforcement and Social Problems, vols I and II. NJ: Patterson Smith; 1969 (orig. 1870).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wu A, Lau JT. Gambling in China: socio-historical evolution and current challenges. Addiction. 2015;110:210–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blakey R. The development of the law of gambling 1776–1976. Washington: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice; 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    France CJ. The gambling impulse. Am J Psychol. 1902;13:364–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peterson VP. Obstacles to enforcement of gambling laws. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci. 1950;269:9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Orford J. Excessive appetites: a psychological view of addictions. New York: Wiley & Sons; 1985.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Squires P. Fydor Dostoevsky: a psychopathographical sketch. Psychoanal Rev. 1937;24:365–88.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pushkin AS. Russian short stories (trans. R.S. Townsend). London: Everyman’s Library; 1982. p. 1–37.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dostoevsky F. The gambler. (trans J. Coulson). Middlesex: Penguin Books; 1978. p. 17–162.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thackeray WM. A gambler’s death. 1840. https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/thackeray/william_makepeace/paris/contents.html. Retrieved 9 Jan 2016.
  13. 13.
    Saki. The stake. Champaign, IL: Project Gutenberg; 1995.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    von Hattinger H. Analerotik, Angstlust und Eigensinn. Int Z Psychoanal. 1914;2:244–58.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bergler E. The psychology of gambling. London: International Universities Press; 1957.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harris H. Gambling and addiction in an adolescent male. Psychoanal Q. 1964;34:513–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herman RD. Gamblers and gambling. New York: Harper Row; 1976.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skinner BF. Science and human behaviour. New York: Free Press; 1953.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pavlov IP. Lectures on conditioned reflexes (translated by W.H. Gantt). London: Allen and Unwin; 1928.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anderson G, Brown RIF. Real and laboratory gambling: sensation-seeking and arousal. Br J Psychol. 1984;75:401–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking: beyond the optimum level of arousal. NJ: Hillsdale; 1979.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jacobs DF. A general theory of addictions: a new theoretical model. J Gambl Behav. 1986;2:15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Solomon RL, Corbit JD. An opponent-process theory of motivation: I. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychol Rev. 1974;81:119–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blaszczynski A, McConaghy. Anxiety and/or depression in the pathogenesis of addictive gambling. Int J Addict. 1989;24:337–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ladouceur R, Walker M. A cognitive perspective on gambling. In: Salkovskis PM, editor. Trends in cognitive-behavioural therapies. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1996. p. 89–120.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Toneatto T, Blitz-Miller T, Calderwood K, Dragonetti R, Tsanos A. Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling. J Gambl Stud. 1997;13:253–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Walker MB. The psychology of gambling. Sydney: Pergamon Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lesieur HR. The chase: career of the compulsive gambler. MA: Schenkman; 1984.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. fourth ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reilly C, Smith N. The evolving definition of pathological gambling in the DSM-5. National Center for Responsible Gaming. 2013. p. 1–6.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    World Health Organisation. ICD-9: international classification of diseases: revisions 9. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation; 1975.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. third ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Petry N. Pathological gambling: etiology, comorbidity, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. fifth ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Petry NM. Pathological gambling and the DSM-V. Int Gambl Stud. 2010;10:113–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV-TR: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text revision). fourth ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Petry NM, Blanco C, Auriacombe M, Borges G, Bucholz K, Crowley TJ, Grant BF, Hasin DS, O’Brien C. An overview of and rationale for changes proposed for pathological gambling in DSM-5. J Gambl Stud. 2014;30:493–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mitzner GB, Whelan JP, Meyers AW. Comments from the trenches: proposed changes to the DSM-V classification of pathological gambling. J Gambl Stud. 2011;27:517–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Petry NM, Blanco C, Stinchfield R, Volberg R. An empirical evaluation of proposed changes for gambling diagnosis in the DSM-5. Addiction. 2013;108:575–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Potenza MN, Steinberg MA, McLaughlin SD, Rounsaville BJ, O'Malley SS. Illegal behaviors in problem gambling: analysis of data from a gambling helpline. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Online. 2000;28:389–403.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Grant JE, Potenza MN. Commentary: Illegal behavior and pathological gambling. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Online. 2007;35:302–5.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Denis C, Fatséas M, Auriacombe M. Analyses related to the development of DSM-5 criteria for substance use related disorders: 3. An assessment of pathological gambling criteria. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;122:22–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Temcheff CE, Derevensky JL, Paskus TS. Pathological and disordered gambling: a comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. Int Gambl Stud. 2011;11:213–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hodgins DC. Using the NORC DSM Screen for Gambling Problems as an outcome measure for pathological gambling: psychometric evaluation. Addict Behav. 2004;29:1685–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shaffer HJ, Hall MN. Estimating the prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: a quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature. J Gambl Stud. 1996;12:193–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abbott M, Volberg R, Bellringer M, Reith G. A review of research on aspects of problem gambling. London: Responsibility in Gambling Trust; 2004.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Toce-Gerstein M, Gerstein DR, Volberg RA. A hierarchy of gambling disorders in the community. Addiction. 2003;98:1661–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bischof A, Meyer C, Bischof G, Kastirke N, John U, Rumpf HJ. Comorbid axis I-disorders among subjects with pathological, problem, or at-risk gambling recruited from the general population in Germany: results of the PAGE study. Psychiatry Res. 2013;210:1065–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Blanco C, Hasin DS, Petry N, Stinson FS, Grant BF. Sex differences in subclinical and DSM-IV pathological gambling: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychol Med. 2006;36:943–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Feigelman W, Gorman BS, Lesieur H. Examining the relationship between at-risk gambling and suicidality in a national representative sample of young adults. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2006;36:396–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Potenza MN, Wareham JD, Steinberg MA, Rugle L, Cavallo DA, Krishnan-Sarin S, Desai RA. Correlates of at-risk/problem Internet gambling in adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50:150–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    LaPlante DA, Nelson SE, LaBrie RA, Shaffer HJ. Stability and progression of disordered gambling: lessons from longitudinal studies. Can J Psychiatry. 2008;53:52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferris J, Wynne H, Single E. Measuring problem gambling in Canada. Draft final report for the Inter-Provincial Task Force on Problem Gambling. Canada: Canadian Centre for Substance Abuse; 1998.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blaszczynski A, Nower L. A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction. 2002;97:487–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Walker M. On defining pathological gambling. National Association of Gambling Studies Newsletter. 1998;10:5–6.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Blaszczynski AP, Steel ZP, McConaghy N. Impulsivity and pathological gambling. Addiction. 1997;92:75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Langham E, Thorne H, Browne M, Donaldson P, Rose J, Rockloff M. Understanding gambling related harm: a proposed definition, conceptual framework, and taxonomy of harms. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:1.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grant JE, Schreiber L, Odlaug BL, Kim SW. Pathological gambling and bankruptcy. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:115–20.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Evans L, Delfabbro PH. Motivators for change and barriers to help-seeking in Australian problem gamblers. J Gambl Stud. 2005;21:133–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Blaszczynski A, Farrell E. A case series of 44 completed gambling-related suicides. J Gambl Stud. 1998;14:93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Abbott DA, Cramer SL, Sherrets SD. Pathological gambling and the family: practice implications. Fam Soc. 1995;76:213.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wenzel HG, Øren A, Bakken IJ. Gambling problems in the family—a stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Muelleman RL, DenOtter T, Wadman MC, Tran TP, Anderson J. Problem gambling in the partner of the emergency department patient as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. J Emerg Med. 2002;23:307–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Afifi TO, Brownridge DA, MacMillan H, Sareen J. The relationship of gambling to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a nationally representative sample. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44:331–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lorenz VC, Yaffee RA. Pathological gamblers and their spouses: problems in interaction. J Gambl Behav. 1989;5:113–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McComb JL, Lee BK, Sprenkle DH. Conceptualizing and treating problem gambling as a family issue. J Marital Fam Ther. 2009;35:415–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Clarke D. Impulsivity as a mediator in the relationship between depression and problem gambling. Personal Individ Differ. 2006;40:5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kim SW, Grant JE, Eckert ED, Faris PL, Hartman BK. Pathological gambling and mood disorders: clinical associations and treatment implications. J Affect Disord. 2006;92:109–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hing N, Holdsworth L, Tiyce M, Breen H. Stigma and problem gambling: current knowledge and future research directions. Int Gambl Stud. 2014;14:64–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Burge AN, Pietrzak RH, Molina CA, Petry NM. Age of gambling initiation and severity of gambling and health problems among older adult problem gamblers. Psychiatr Serv. 2004;55:1437–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Desai RA, Desai MM, Potenza MN. Gambling, health and age: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychol Addict Behav. 2007;21:431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Erickson L, Molina CA, Ladd GT, Pietrzak RH, Petry NM. Problem and pathological gambling are associated with poorer mental and physical health in older adults. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;20:754–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Morasco BJ, Pietrzak RH, Blanco C, Grant BF, Hasin D, Petry NM. Health problems and medical utilization associated with gambling disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychosom Med. 2006;68:976–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Trevorrow K, Moore S. The association between loneliness, social isolation and women’s electronic gaming machine gambling. J Gambl Stud. 1998;14:263–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Raylu N, Oei TP. Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling. Clin Psychol Rev. 2004;23:1087–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Winters KC, Bengston P, Door D, Stinchfield R. Prevalence and risk factors of problem gambling among college students. Psychol Addict Behav. 1998;12:127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Collins D, Lapsley H. The social costs and benefits of gambling: an introduction to the economic issues. J Gambl Stud. 2003;19:123–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Garman ET, Leech IE, Grable JE. The negative impact of employee poor personal financial behaviors on employers. J Financ Couns Plan. 1996;7:157.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brain Mind Centre, School of PsychologyThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations