Advertisement

Innovative Treatment Approaches in Gambling Disorder

  • Leroy SnippeEmail author
  • Marilisa Boffo
  • Sherry H. Stewart
  • Geert Dom
  • Reinout W. Wiers
Chapter

Abstract

Excessive gambling behavior is a complex psychopathological phenomenon, characterized by the interaction of multiple etiological factors and by a very heterogeneous symptomatological expression. To date, there are no existing evidence-based “best practice” treatment standards for gambling disorder. Healthcare providers and clinicians are further challenged by the difficulty in reaching out to individuals suffering from gambling problems. Despite a surge of empirical studies on various therapeutic approaches addressing disordered gambling, there is an urgent need for the development of suitable and cost-effective helping tools. This chapter presents a narrative overview of recent advances in the development of and research on innovative treatment approaches and treatment modalities for gambling problems, ranging from training interventions based on addiction models, such as Cognitive Bias Modification and general cognitive training programs; neuromodulation techniques, and employment of modern digital technology to promote large-scale support services and overcome treatment barriers, to personalization of existing interventions to individual and culture-based characteristics and preferences, and integration of multiple methods. Each section of this chapter presents existing preliminary evidence for such novel treatment approaches in the domain of disordered gambling and, when not available, results in the broader field of addictive behaviors. Altogether, these novel venues of research on gambling interventions share the goal of enhancing therapeutic effects and overcoming barriers and limitations to existing treatment programs by meeting the heterogeneous needs and demands of this peculiar clinical population.

Keywords

Gambling disorder Problem gambling Gambling treatment Digital interventions  Mindfulness-based interventions Personalized interventions Cognitive training Cognitive bias modification Neuromodulation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Preparation of this chapter was partly supported by grants from the National Belgian Lottery (grant: A15/0726) and the US National Center for Responsible Gaming. Additional support has been provided by the Nova Scotia Department of Health and Wellness and the Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation (grant: PSO-SSG-2015-10,036). The contents of this manuscript are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of any of the funding agencies.

References

  1. 1.
    Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Chamberlain SR. Neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder: a review. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;65:188–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hodgins DC, Stea JN, Grant JE. Gambling disorders. Lancet. 2011;378(9806):1874–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth N, Van Den Brink W, Goudriaan AE. From symptoms to neurobiology: pathological gambling in the light of the new classification in DSM-5. Neuropsychobiology. 2014;70(2):95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thomsen KR, Fjorback LO, Møller A, Lou HC. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;45:343–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stewart SH, Zack M, Collins P, Klein RM, Fragopoulos F. Sub-typing pathological gamblers on the basis of affective motivations for gambling: relations to gambling problems, drinking problems, and affective motivations for drinking. Psychol Addict Behav. 2008;22:257–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Milosevic A, Ledgerwood DM. The subtyping of pathological gambling: a comprehensive 1101 review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30:988–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cunningham JA. Little use of treatment among problem gamblers. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(8):1024–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Suurvali H, Hodgins DC, Toneatto T, Cunningham JA. Treatment-seeking among Ontario problem gamblers: results of a population survey. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59:1343–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gainsbury S, Hing N, Suhonen N. Professional help-seeking for gambling problems: awareness, barriers and motivators for treatment. J Gambl Stud. 2014;30(2):503–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Suurvali H, Cordingley J, Hodgins DC, Cunningham J. Barriers to seeking help for gambling problems: a review of the empirical literature. J Gambl Stud. 2009;25(3):407–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cowlishaw S, Merkouris S, Dowling N, Anderson C, Jackson A, Thomas S. Psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD008937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bechara A. Decision making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: a neurocognitive perspective. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8(11):1458–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wiers RW, Bartholow BD, van den Wildenberg E, Thush C, Engels RCME, Sher KJ, et al. Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: a review and a model. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;86(2):263–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keren G, Schul Y. Two is not always better than one a critical evaluation of two-system theories. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2009;4(6):533–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cunningham WA, Zelazo PD. Attitudes and evaluations: a social cognitive neuroscience perspective. Trends Cogn Sci. 2007;11(3):97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gladwin TE, Figner B, Crone EA, Wiers RW. Addiction, adolescence, and the integration of control and motivation. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2011;1(4):364–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wiers RW, Gladwin TE, Hofmann W, Salemink E, Ridderinkhof KR. Cognitive bias modification and cognitive control training in addiction and related psychopathology: mechanisms, clinical perspectives, and ways forward. Clin Psychol Sci. 2013a;1:192–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gladwin TE, Wiers CE, Wiers RW. Interventions aimed at automatic processes in addiction: considering necessary conditions for efficacy. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2017;13:19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kopetz CE, Lejuez CW, Wiers RW, Kruglanski a W. Motivation and self-regulation in addiction: a call for convergence. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2013;8(1):3–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lewis M. The biology of desire: why addiction is not a disease. NY: Public Affairs; 2015.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller W, Rollnick G. Motivational interviewing: helping people change. NY: Guilford; 2013.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stacy AW, Wiers RW. Implicit cognition and addiction: a tool for explaining paradoxical behavior. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2010;6:551–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wiers RW, Eberl C, Rinck M, Becker ES, Lindenmeyer J. Retraining automatic action tendencies changes alcoholic patients’ approach bias for alcohol and improves treatment outcome. Psychol Sci. 2011;22(4):490–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eberl C, Wiers RW, Pawelczack S, Rinck M, Becker ES, Lindenmeyer J. Approach bias modification in alcohol dependence: do clinical effects replicate and for whom does it work best? Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2013;4:38–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Franken IHA. Drug craving and addiction: integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacological approaches. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003;27(4):563–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Robinson TE, Berridge KC. The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Rev. 1993;18(3):247–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Robinson TE, Berridge KC. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci. 2008;363(1507):3137–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hudson A, Olatunji BO, Gough K, Yi S, Stewart SH. Eye on the prize: high-risk gamblers show sustained selective attention to gambling cues. J Gambl Iss. 2016:100–19.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hønsi A, Mentzoni RA, Molde H, Pallesen S. Attentional bias in problem gambling: a systematic review. J Gambl Stud. 2013;29(3):359–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bickel WK, Landes RD, Kurth-Nelson Z, Redish AD. A quantitative signature of self- control repair: rate-dependent effects of successful addiction treatment. Clin Psychol Sci. 2014;2(6):685–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bickel WK, Yi R, Landes RD, Hill PF, Baxter C. Remember the future: working memory training decreases delay discounting among stimulant addicts. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69(3):260–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Houben K, Wiers RW, Jansen A. Getting a grip on drinking behavior: training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse. Psychol Sci. 2011;22(7):968–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    MacLeod C, Rutherford E, Campbell L, Ebsworthy G, Holker L. Selective attention and emotional vulnerability: assessing the causal basis of their association through the experimental manipulation of attentional bias. J Abnorm Psychol. 2002;111(1):107–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    MacLeod C, Mathews A. Cognitive bias modification approaches to anxiety. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2012;8:189–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Taylor CT, Amir N. Modifying automatic approach action tendencies in individuals with elevated social anxiety symptoms. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50(9):529–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kakoschke N, Kemps E, Tiggemann M. Approach bias modification training and consumption: a review of the literature. Addict Behav. 2016;64:21–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Posner MI, Snyder CRR, Davidson BJ. Attention and the detection of signals. J Exp Psychol Gen. 1980;109(2):160–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mathews A, MacLeod C. Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1(1):167–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cox WM, Fadardi JS, Pothos EM. The addiction-stroop test: theoretical considerations and procedural recommendations. Psychol Bull. 2006;132(3):443–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    MacLeod C, Mathews A, Tata P. Attentional bias in emotional disorders. J Abnorm Psychol. 1986;95(1):15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Field M, Cox WM. Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: a review of its development, causes, and consequences. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;97:1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Munafò M, Mogg K, Roberts S, Bradley BP, Murphy M. Selective processing of smoking- related cues in current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers on the modified Stroop task. J Psychopharmacol. 2003;17(3):310–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bradley BP, Field M, Mogg K, De Houwer J. Attentional and evaluative biases for smok- ing cues in nicotine dependence: component processes of biases in visual orienting. Behav Pharmacol. 2004;15(1):29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Johnsen BH, Laberg JC, Cox WM, Vaksdal A, Hugdahl K. Alcoholic subjects’ attentional bias in the processing of alcohol-related words. Psychol Addict Behav. 1994;8(2):111–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cox WM, Blount JP, Rozak AM. Alcohol abusers’ and nonabusers’ distraction by alcohol and concern-related stimuli. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2000;26(3):489–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Field M, Eastwood B, Bradley BP, Mogg K. Selective processing of cannabis cues in regular cannabis users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;85(1):75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Franken IHA, Kroon LY, Wiers RW, Jansen A. Selective cognitive processing of drug 1203 cues in heroin dependence. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14(4):395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hester R, Dixon V, Garavan H. A consistent attentional bias for drug-related material in active cocaine users across word and picture versions of the emotional Stroop task. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81(3):251–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shafran R, Lee M, Cooper Z, Palmer RL, Fairburn CG. Attentional bias in eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2007;40(4):369–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Townshend JM, Duka T. Attentional bias associated with alcohol cues: differences between heavy and occasional social drinkers. Psychopharmacology. 2001;157(1):67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bruce G, Jones BT. A pictorial Stroop paradigm reveals an alcohol attentional bias in heavier compared to lighter social drinkers. J Psychopharmacol. 2004;18(4):527–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Field M, Mogg K, Bradley BP. Cognitive bias and drug craving in recreational cannabis users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;74(1):105–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Christiansen P, Schoenmakers TM, Field M. Less than meets the eye: reappraising the clinical relevance of attentional bias in addiction. Addict Behav. 2015;44:43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Boyer M, Dickerson M. Attentional bias and addictive behaviour: automaticity in a gambling-specific modified Stroop task. Addiction. 2003;98(1):61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Molde H, Pallesen S, Sætrevik B, Hammerborg DK, Laberg JC, Johnsen B-H. Attentional biases among pathological gamblers. Int Gambl Stud. 2010;10(1):45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brevers D, Cleeremans A, Bechara A, Laloyaux C, Kornreich C, Verbanck P, Noël X. Time course of attentional bias for gambling information in problem gambling. Psychol Addict Behav. 2011;25(4):675.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ciccarelli M, Nigro G, Griffiths MD, Cosenza M, D’Olimpio F. Attentional bias in non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers, and abstinent pathological gamblers: an experimental study. J Affect Disord. 2016;206:9–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ciccarelli M, Nigro G, Griffiths MD, Cosenza M, D’Olimpio F. Attentional biases in problem and non-problem gamblers. J Affect Disord. 2016;198:135–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vizcaino EJV, Fernandez-Navarro P, Blanco C, Ponce G, Navio M, Moratti S, Rubio G. Maintenance of attention and pathological gambling. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013;27(3):861–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brevers D, Cleeremans A, Tibboel H, Bechara A, Kornreich C, Verbanck P, Noël X. Reduced attentional blink for gambling-related stimuli in problem gamblers. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2011;42(3):265–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wölfling K, Mörsen CP, Duven E, Albrecht U, Grüsser SM, Flor H. To gamble or not to gamble: at risk for craving and relapse-learned motivated attention in pathological gambling. Biol Psychol. 2011;87(2):275–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    van Holst RJ, van Holstein M, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ, Goudriaan AE. Response inhibition during cue reactivity in problem gamblers: an FMRI study. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e30909.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McCusker CG. Cognitive biases and addiction: an evolution in theory and method. Addiction. 2001;96(1):47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    McGrath DS, Meitner A, Sears CR. The specificity of attentional biases by type of gambling: an eye-tracking study. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0190614.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Field M, Duka T, Eastwood B, Child R, Santarcangelo M, Gayton M. Experimental manipulation of attentional biases in heavy drinkers: do the effects generalise? Psychopharmacology. 2007;192(4):593–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Field M, Eastwood B. Experimental manipulation of attentional bias increases the motivation to drink alcohol. Psychopharmacology. 2005;183(3):350–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Schoenmakers TM, Wiers RW, Jones BT, Bruce G, Jansen ATM. Attentional re- 1254 training decreases attentional bias in heavy drinkers without generalization. Addiction. 2007;102(3):399–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schoenmakers TM, de Bruin M, Lux IFM, Goertz AG, Van Kerkhof DHAT, Wiers RW. Clinical effectiveness of attentional bias modification training in abstinent alcoholic patients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;109(1):30–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fadardi JS, Cox WM. Reversing the sequence: reducing alcohol consumption by over- coming alcohol attentional bias. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;101(3):137–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cox WM, Fadardi JS, Hosier SG, Pothos EM. Differential effects and temporal course of attentional and motivational training on excessive drinking. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;23(6):445.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    McHugh RK, Murray HW, Hearon BA, Calkins AW, Otto MW. Attentional bias and craving in smokers: the impact of a single attentional training session. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(12):1261–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Begh R, Munafò MR, Shiffman S, Ferguson SG, Nichols L, Mohammed MA, Holder RL, Sutton S, Aveyard P. Lack of attentional retraining effects in cigarette smokers attempting cessation: a proof of concept double-blind randomised controlled trial. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;149:158–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Attwood AS, O’Sullivan H, Leonards U, Mackintosh B, Munafò MR. Attentional bias training and cue reactivity in cigarette smokers. Addiction. 2008;103(11):1875–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Field M, Duka T, Tyler E, Schoenmakers T. Attentional bias modification in tobacco smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(7):812–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kerst WF, Waters AJ. Attentional retraining administered in the field reduces smokers’ attentional bias and craving. Health Psychol. 2014;33(10):1232–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lopes FM, Pires AV, Bizarro L. Attentional bias modification in smokers trying to quit: a longitudinal study about the effects of number of sessions. J Subst Abus Treat. 2014;47(1):50–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Elfeddali I, de Vries H, Bolman C, Pronk T, Wiers RW. A randomized controlled trial of web-based attentional bias modification to help smokers quit. Health Psychol. 2016;35(8):870–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kemps E, Tiggemann M, Hollitt S. Biased attentional processing of food cues and modification in obese individuals. Health Psychol. 2014a;33(11):1391–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kemps E, Tiggemann M, Orr J, Grear J. Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2014;20(1):94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kemps E, Tiggemann M, Elford J. Sustained effects of attentional re-training on chocolate consumption. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2015;49:94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kakoschke N, Kemps E, Tiggemann M. Attentional bias modification encourages healthy eating. Eat Behav. 2014;15(1):120–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Boffo M, Willemen R, Pronk T, Wiers RW, Dom G. Effectiveness of two web-based cognitive bias modification interventions targeting approach and attentional bias in gambling problems: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2017;18(1):452.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Field M, Caren R, Fernie G, De Houwer J. Alcohol approach tendencies in heavy drinkers: comparison of effects in a relevant stimulus–response compatibility task and an approach/avoidance Simon task. Psychol Addict Behav. 2011;25(4):697–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wiers RW, Gladwin TE, Rinck M. Should we train alcohol-dependent patients to avoid alcohol? Front Psych. 2013;4:33.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kersbergen I, Woud ML, Field M. The validity of different measures of automatic alcohol action tendencies. Psychol Addict Behav. 2015;29(1):225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Krieglmeyer R, Deutsch R. Comparing measures of approach–avoidance behaviour: the manikin task vs. two versions of the joystick task. Cognit Emot. 2010;24(5):810–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Field M, Mogg K, Bradley BP. Craving and cognitive biases for alcohol cues in social drinkers. Alcohol Alcohol. 2005;40(6):504–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wiers RW, Rinck M, Dictus M, Van Den Wildenberg E. Relatively strong automatic appetitive action-tendencies in male carriers of the OPRM1 G-allele. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8(1):101–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bradley BP, Field M, Healy H, Mogg K. Do the affective properties of smoking-related cues influence attentional and approach biases in cigarette smokers? J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22(7):737–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wiers CE, Kühn S, Javadi AH, Korucuoglu O, Wiers RW, Walter H, et al. Automatic approach bias towards smoking cues is present in smokers but not in ex-smokers. Psychopharmacology. 2013c;229(1):187–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Watson P, de Wit S, Wiers RW. Motivational mechanisms underlying the approach bias to cigarettes. J Exp Psychopathol. 2013;4(3):250–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cousijn J, Goudriaan AE, Wiers RW. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use. Addiction. 2011;106(9):1667–74.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wiers RW, Rinck M, Kordts R, Houben K, Strack F. Retraining automatic action-tendencies to approach alcohol in hazardous drinkers. Addiction. 2010;105(2):279–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Veenstra EM, de Jong PJ. Restrained eaters show enhanced automatic approach tendencies towards food. Appetite. 2010;55(1):30–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Havermans RC, Giesen JCAH, Houben K, Jansen A. Weight, gender, and snack appeal. Eat Behav. 2011;12(2):126–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kemps E, Tiggemann M. Approach bias for food cues in obese individuals. Psychol Health. 2015;30(3):370–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kakoschke N, Kemps E, Tiggemann M. Combined effects of cognitive bias for food cues and poor inhibitory control on unhealthy food intake. Appetite. 2015;87:358–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kakoschke N, Kemps E, Tiggemann M. Differential effects of approach bias and eating style on unhealthy food consumption in overweight and normal weight women. Psychol Health. 2017;32(11):1371–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Salmon JP, Boffo M, Smits R, Salemink E, de Jong D, Cowie M, Collins P, Stewart SH, Wiers RW. Measuring implicit biases towards gambling stimuli in problem gamblers from Canada and the Netherlands: lessons learned from cross-cultural internet research. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the National Centre for Responsible Gambling, Las Vegas, NV. 2016.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Boffo M, Smits R, Salmon JP, Cowie M, de Jong DTHA, Salemink E, Collins P, Stewart SH, Wiers RW. Luck, come here! Automatic approach tendencies toward gambling cues in moderate-to-high gamblers. Addiction. 2018;113(2):289–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ostafin BD, Palfai TP. Compelled to consume: the implicit association test and automatic alcohol motivation. Psychol Addict Behav. 2006;20(3):322. 1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Palfai TP, Ostafin BD. Alcohol-related motivational tendencies in hazardous drinkers: assessing implicit response tendencies using the modified-IAT. Behav Res Ther. 2003;41(10):1149–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Greenwald AG, McGhee DE, Schwartz JL. Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;74(6):1464–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wiers RW, Boffo M, Field M. What’s in a trial? On the importance of distinguishing between experimental lab studies and randomized controlled trials: the case of cognitive bias modification and alcohol use disorders. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2018;79(3):333–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Boffo M, Zerhouni O, Gronau QF, van Beek RJJ, Nikolaou K, Marsman M, Wiers RW. Cognitive Bias Modification for behavior change in alcohol and smoking addiction: a Bayesian meta-analysis of individual participant data. Neuropsychol Rev. In press.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Manning V, Staiger P, Hall K, Garfield J, Flaks G, Leung D, et al. Cognitive bias modification training during inpatient alcohol detoxification reduces early relapse: a randomized controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40(9):2011–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Eberl C, Wiers RW, Pawelczack S, Rinck M, Becker ES, Lindenmeyer J. Implementation of approach bias re-training in alcoholism-how many sessions are needed? Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38(2):587–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wittekind CE, Feist A, Schneider BC, Moritz S, Fritzsche A. The approach-avoidance task as an online intervention in cigarette smoking: a pilot study. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2015;46:115–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Machulska A, Zlomuzica A, Rinck M, Assion HJ, Margraf J. Approach bias modification in inpatient psychiatric smokers. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;76:44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Larsen H, Kong G, Becker D, Cavallo DA, Cousijn J, Salemink E, et al. Cognitive bias modification combined with cognitive behavioral therapy: a smoking cessation intervention for adolescents. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;146.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Brockmeyer T, Hahn C, Reetz C, Schmidt U, Friederich HC. Approach bias modification in food craving – a proof-of-concept study. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2015;23(5):352–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dickson H, Kavanagh DJ, MacLeod C. The pulling power of chocolate: effects of approach–avoidance training on approach bias and consumption. Appetite. 2016;99:46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kakoschke N, Kemps E, Tiggemann M. The effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit food evaluation and choice. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2017;55:99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Becker D, Jostmann NB, Wiers RW, Holland RW. Approach avoidance training in the eating domain: testing the effectiveness across three single session studies. Appetite. 2015;85:58–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rabinovitz S, Nagar M. Possible end to an endless quest? Cognitive bias modification for excessive multiplayer online gamers. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2015;18(10):581–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Snippe L, Boffo M, Willemen R, Dom G, Wiers RW. The added effectiveness of online approach bias modification atop internet-based CBT with chat-based guidance for problem gamblers. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hofmann W, De Houwer J, Perugini M, Baeyens F, Crombez G. Evaluative conditioning in humans: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2010;136(3):390–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rooke SE, Hine DW, Thorsteinsson EB. Implicit cognition and substance use: a meta-analysis. Addict Behav. 2008;33(10):1314–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Houben K, Wiers RW. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior. Addict Behav. 2008;33(8):979–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Spruyt A, Lemaigre V, Salhi B, Van Gucht D, Tibboel H, Van Bockstaele B, et al. Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers. Psychopharmacology. 2015;232(14):2551–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ellis EM, Kiviniemi MT, Cook-Cottone C. Implicit affective associations predict snack choice for those with low, but not high levels of eating disorder symptomatology. Appetite. 2014;77:122–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Stewart MJ, Yi S, Stewart SH. Effects of gambling-related cues on the activation of implicit and explicit gambling outcome expectancies in regular gamblers. J Gambl Stud. 2014;30:653–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stewart MJ, Stewart SH, Yi S, Ellery M. Predicting gambling behaviour and problems from implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies in regular gamblers. Int Gambl Stud. 2015;15(1):124–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Stiles M, Hudson A, Ramasubbu C, Ames S, Yi S, Gough K, Stewart SH. The role of memory associations in excessive and problem gambling. J Gambl Iss. 2016;34:120–39.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Yi S, Kanetkar V. Implicit measures of attitudes toward gambling: an exploratory study. J Gambl Iss. 2010;24(24):140–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Brevers D, Cleeremans A, Hermant C, Tibboel H, Kornreich C, Verbanck P, Noël X. Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: positive but not negative implicit associations. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2013;44(1):94–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    de Houwer J, Thomas S, Baeyens F. Association learning of likes and dislikes: a review of 25 years of research on human evaluative conditioning. Psychol Bull. 2001;127(6):853–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Raes AK, De Raedt R. The effect of counterconditioning on evaluative responses and harm expectancy in a fear conditioning paradigm. Behav Ther. 2012;43(4):757–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Houben K, Havermans RC, Wiers RW. Learning to dislike alcohol: conditioning negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and its effect on drinking behavior. Psychopharmacology. 2010;211(1):79–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Houben K, Schoenmakers TM, Wiers RW. I didn’t feel like drinking but I don’t know why: the effects of evaluative conditioning on alcohol-related attitudes, craving and behavior. Addict Behav. 2010;35(12):1161–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hollands GJ, Prestwich A, Marteau TM. Using aversive images to enhance healthy food choices and implicit attitudes: an experimental test of evaluative conditioning. Health Psychol. 2011;30(2):195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lebens H, Roefs A, Martijn C, Houben K, Nederkoorn C, Jansen A. Making implicit mea- sures of associations with snack foods more negative through evaluative conditioning. Eat Behav. 2011;12(4):249–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hensels IS, Baines S. Changing “gut feelings” about food: an evaluative conditioning effect on implicit food evaluations and food choice. Learn Motiv. 2016;55:31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shaw JA, Forman EM, Espel HM, Butryn ML, Herbert JD, Lowe MR, Nederkoorn C. Can evaluative conditioning decrease soft drink consumption? Appetite. 2016;105:60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Walsh EM, Kiviniemi MT. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors. J Behav Med. 2014;37(2):322–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Friese M, Hofmann W, Wiers RW. On taming horses and strengthening riders: recent developments in research on interventions to improve self-control in health behaviors. Self Identity. 2011;10(3):336–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Houben K, Havermans RC, Nederkoorn C, Jansen A. Beer a no-go: learning to stop responding to alcohol cues reduces alcohol intake via reduced affective associations rather than increased response inhibition. Addiction. 2012;107(7):1280–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Houben K, Nederkoorn C, Wiers RW, Jansen A. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;116(1–3):132–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Otto MW, Eastman A, Lo S, Hearon BA, Bickel WK, Zvolensky M, et al. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion. Clin Psychol Rev. 2016;49:67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mendrek A, Monterosso J, Simon SL, Jarvik M, Brody A, Olmstead R, et al. Working memory in cigarette smokers: comparison to non-smokers and effects of abstinence. Addict Behav. 2006;31(5):833–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Loughead J, Wileyto EP, Ruparel K, Falcone M, Hopson R, Gur R, Lerman C. Working memory-related neural activity predicts future smoking relapse. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40(6):1311–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Patterson F, Jepson C, Loughead J, Perkins K, Strasser AA, Siegel S, et al. Working memory deficits predict short-term smoking resumption following brief abstinence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;106(1):61–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wiers RW, Boelema SR, Nikolaou K, Gladwin TE. On the development of implicit and control processes in relation to substance use in adolescence. Curr Addict Rep. 2015;2:141–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ellingson JM, Fleming KA, Vergés A, Bartholow BD, Sher KJ. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data. Addict Behav. 2014;39(11):1622–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sharbanee JM, Stritzke WGK, Wiers RW, Young P, Rinck M, MacLeod C. The interaction of approach-alcohol action tendencies, working memory capacity, and current task goals predicts the inability to regulate drinking behavior. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013;27(3):649–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Thush C, Wiers RW, Ames SL, Grenard JL, Sussman S, Stacy AW. Interactions between implicit and explicit cognition and working memory capacity in the prediction of alcohol use in at-risk adolescents. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;94(1–3):116–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Khurana A, Romer D, Betancourt LM, Brodsky NL, Giannetta JM, Hurt H. Working memory ability predicts trajectories of early alcohol use in adolescents: the mediational role of impulsivity. Addiction. 2013;108(3):506–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Grenard JL, Ames SL, Wiers RW, Thush C, Sussman S, Stacy AW. Working memory capacity moderates the predictive effects of drug-related associations on substance use. Psychol Addict Behav. 2008;22(3):426–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Becker MP, Collins PF, Luciana M. Neurocognition in college-aged daily marijuana users. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2014.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Coppin G, Nolan-Poupart S, Jones-Gotman M, Small DM. Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity. Neuropsychologia. 2014;65:146–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Goudriaan AE, Oosterlaan J, De Beurs E, Van Den Brink W. Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling: a comparison with alcohol dependence, Tourette syndrome and normal controls. Addiction. 2006;101(4):534–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Albein-Urios N, Martinez-González JM, Lozano Ó, Clark L, Verdejo-García A. Comparison of impulsivity and working memory in cocaine addiction and pathological gambling: implications for cocaine-induced neurotoxicity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;126:1–2):1–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Yan WS, Li YH, Xiao L, Zhu N, Bechara A, Sui N. Working memory and affective decision- making in addiction: a neurocognitive comparison between heroin addicts, pathological gamblers and healthy controls. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;134(1):194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Leiserson V, Pihl RO. Reward-sensitivity, inhibition of reward-seeking, and dorsolateral prefrontal working memory function in problem gamblers not in treatment. J Gambl Stud. 2007;23(4):435–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Karbach J, Verhaeghen P. Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive- control and working memory training in older adults. Psychol Sci. 2014;25(11):2027–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Klingberg T, Fernell E, Olesen PJ, Johnson M, Gustafsson P, Dahlström K, et al. Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD—a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44(2):177–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Buitenweg JIV, Murre JMJ, Ridderinkhof KR. Brain training in progress: a review of trainability in healthy seniors. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6(183).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Jaeggi SM, Buschkuehl M, Jonides J, Shah P, Morrison AB, Chein JM. Short-and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108(25):46–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Shipstead Z, Redick TS, Engle RW. Is working memory training effective? Psychol Bull. 2012;138(4):628–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Vugs B, Knoors H, Cuperus J, Hendriks M, Verhoeven L. Executive function training in children with SLI: a pilot study. Child Lang Teach Ther. 2016.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wesley MJ, Bickel WK. Remember the future II: meta-analyses and functional overlap of working memory and delay discounting. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75(6):435–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Verbeken S, Braet C, Goossens L, van der Oord S. Executive function training with game elements for obese children: a novel treatment to enhance self-regulatory abilities for weight- control. Behav Res Ther. 2013;51(6):290–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Houben K, Dassen FC, Jansen A. Taking control: working memory training in overweight individuals increases self-regulation of food intake. Appetite. 2016;105:567–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Jones A, Christiansen P, Nederkoorn C, Houben K, Field M. Fluctuating disinhibition: implications for the understanding and treatment of alcohol and other substance use disorders. Front Psych. 2013;4(140).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Nower L, Blaszczynski A. Impulsivity and pathological gambling: a descriptive model. Int Gambl Stud. 2006;6(1):61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Goudriaan AE, Oosterlaan J, De Beurs E, Van Den Brink W. Decision making in pathological gambling: a comparison between pathological gamblers, alcohol dependents, persons with Tourette syndrome, and normal controls. Cogn Brain Res. 2005;23:137–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Fuentes D, Tavares H, Artes R, Gorenstein C. Self-reported and neuropsychological measures of impulsivity in pathological gambling. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006;12(6):907–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Brevers D, Cleeremans A, Verbruggen F, Bechara A, Kornreich C, Verbanck P, Noël X. Impulsive action but not impulsive choice determines problem gambling severity. PLoS One. 2012;7(11).Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Devos G, Clark L, Maurage P, Kazimierczuk M, Billieux J. Reduced inhibitory control pre- dicts persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling. Int Gambl Stud. 2015;15(3):408–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Grant JE, Chamberlain SR, Schreiber LRN, Odlaug BL, Kim SW. Selective decision-making deficits in at-risk gamblers. Psychiatry Res. 2011;189(1):115–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Verdejo-García A, Lawrence AJ, Clark L. Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance- 1529 use disorders: review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic 1530 association studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32(4):777–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Jones A, Field M. The effects of cue-specific inhibition training on alcohol consumption in heavy social drinkers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013;21(1):8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Allom V, Mullan B. Two inhibitory control training interventions designed to improve eating behaviour and determine mechanisms of change. Appetite. 2015;89:282–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Veling H, van Koningsbruggen GM, Aarts H, Stroebe W. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight. Appetite. 2014;78:102–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Allom V, Mullan B, Hagger M. Does inhibitory control training improve health behaviour? A meta-analysis. Health Psychol Rev. 2015;7199(6):1–38.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    de Wit H. Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes. Addict Biol. 2009;14:22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Jones A, Christiansen P, Nederkoorn C, Houben K, Field M. Fluctuating Disinhibition: implications for the understanding and treatment of alcohol and other substance use disorders. Front Psych. 2013;4(140).Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Gauggel S, Heusinger A, Forkmann T, Boecker M, Lindenmeyer J, Miles Cox W, Staedtgen M. Effects of alcohol cue exposure on response inhibition in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34(9):1584–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Jones A, Guerrieri R, Fernie G, Cole J, Goudie A, Field M. The effects of priming restrained versus disinhibited behaviour on alcohol-seeking in social drinkers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011b;113:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Houben K, Nederkoorn C, Jansen A. Eating on impulse: the relation between overweight and food-specific inhibitory control. Obesity. 2014;22(5):E6–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Jones A, Field M. Alcohol-related and negatively-valenced cues increase motor and oculomotor disinhibition in social drinkers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;23:122–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Fillmore MT, Rush CR, Marczinski CA. Effects of d-amphetamine on behavioral control in stimulant abusers: the role of prepotent response tendencies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;71(2):143–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Logan G, Cowan W. On the ability to inhibit thought and action: a theory of an act of control. Psychol Rev. 1984;91:295–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Verbruggen F, Logan GD. Automatic and controlled response inhibition: associative learning in the go/no-go and stop-signal paradigms. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2008;137(4):649–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Jones A, McGrath E, Houben K, Nederkoorn C, Robinson E, Field M. A comparison of three types of web-based inhibition training for the reduction of alcohol consumption in problem drinkers: study protocol. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):796.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Veling H, Holland RW, van Knippenberg A. When approach motivation and behavioral inhibition collide: behavior regulation through stimulus devaluation. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2008;44(4):1013–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Jones A, Di Lemma LCG, Robinson E, Christiansen P, Nolan S, Tudur-Smith C, Field M. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: a meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness. Appetite. 2016;7:16–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Houben K, Jansen A. Chocolate equals stop: chocolate-specific inhibition training reduces chocolate intake and go associations with chocolate. Appetite. 2015;87:318–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Veling H, Aarts H, Papies EK. Using stop signals to inhibit chronic dieters’ responses toward palatable foods. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49(11):771–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Houben K, Jansen A. Training inhibitory control. A recipe for resisting sweet temptations. Appetite. 2011;56(2):345–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    van Koningsbruggen GM, Veling H, Stroebe W, Aarts H. Comparing two psychological interventions in reducing impulsive processes of eating behaviour: effects on self-selected portion size. Br J Health Psychol. 2014;19(4):767–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Veling H, Aarts H, Stroebe W. Using stop signals to reduce impulsive choices for palatable unhealthy foods. Br J Health Psychol. 2013;18(2):354–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Houben K. Overcoming the urge to splurge: influencing eating behavior by manipulating inhibitory control. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2011;42(3):384–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Lawrence NS, O’Sullivan J, Parslow D, Javaid M, Adams RC, Chambers CD, et al. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake. Appetite. 2015;95:17–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Ferrey AE, Frischen A, Fenske MJ. Hot or not: response inhibition reduces the hedonic value and motivational incentive of sexual stimuli. Front Psych. 2012;3:575.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Jansen JM, Daams JG, Koeter MW, Veltman DJ, van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE. Effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on craving: a meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(10):2472–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Lefaucheur JP, André-Obadia N, Antal A, Ayache SS, Baeken C, Benninger DH, Cantello RM, Cincotta M, de Carvalho M, De Ridder D, Devanne H, Di Lazzaro V, Filipović SR, Hummel FC, Jääskeläinen SK, Kimiskidis VK, Koch G, Langguth B, Nyffeler T, Oliviero A, Padberg F, Poulet E, Rossi S, Rossini PM, Rothwell JC, Schönfeldt-Lecuona C, Siebner HR, Slotema CW, Stagg CJ, Valls-Sole J, Ziemann U, Paulus W, Garcia-Larrea L. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Clin Neurophysiol. 2014;125(11):2150–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Tortella G, Casati R, Aparicio LV, Mantovani A, Senço N, D’Urso G, Brunelin J, Guarienti F, Selingardi PM, Muszkat D, Junior BS, Valiengo L, Moffa AH, Simis M, Borrione L, Brunoni AR. Transcranial direct current stimulation in psychiatric disorders. World J Psychiatry. 2015;5(1):88–102.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    De Ridder D, Vanneste S, Kovacs S, Sunaert S, Dom G. Transient alcohol craving suppression by rTMS of dorsal anterior cingulate: an fMRI and LORETA EEG study. Neurosci Lett. 2011;496(1):5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Sauvaget A, Trojak B, Bulteau S, Jiménez-Murcia S, Fernández-Aranda F, Wolz I, Menchón JM, Achab S, Vanelle JM, Grall-Bronnec M. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues. Front Neurosci. 2015;9.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    He Q, Chen M, Chen C, Xue G, Feng T, Bechara A. Anodal stimulation of the left DLPFC increases IGT scores and decreases delay discounting rate in healthy males. Front Psych. 2016;7:1421.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Brevet-Aeby C, Brunelin J, Iceta S, Padovan C, Poulet E. Prefrontal cortex and impulsivity: interest of noninvasive brain stimulation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;71:112–34.. He Q, Chen M, Chen C, Xue G, Feng T, Bechara A. Anodal stimulation of the left DLPFC increases IGT scores and decreases delay discounting rate in healthy males. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Goudriaan AE, Oosterlaan J, de Beurs E, Van den Brink W. Pathological gambling: a comprehensive review of biobehavioral findings. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2004;28(2):123–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    van Holst RJ, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ, Goudriaan AE. Why gamblers fail to win: a review of cognitive and neuroimaging findings in pathological gambling. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;34(1):87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hone-Blanchet A, Ciraulo DA, Pascual-Leone A, Fecteau S. Noninvasive brain stimulation to suppress craving in substance use disorders: review of human evidence and methodological considerations for future work. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;59:184–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Zack M, Cho SS, Parlee J, Jacobs M, Li C, Boileau I, Strafella A. Effects of high frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation and continuous theta burst stimulation on gam- bling reinforcement, delay discounting, and stroop interference in men with pathological gambling. Brain Stimul. 2016;9(6):867–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Rosenberg O, Klein LD, Dannon PN. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of pathological gambling. Psychiatry Res. 2013;206(1):111–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Chervyakov AV, Chernyavsky AY, Sinitsyn DO, Piradov MA. Possible mechanisms under- lying the therapeutic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:303.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    den Uyl TE, Gladwin TE, Rinck M, Lindenmeyer J, Wiers RW. A clinical trial with com- bined transcranial direct current stimulation and alcohol approach bias retraining. Addict Biol. 2017;22(6):1632–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    den Uyl TE, Gladwin TE, Wiers RW. Electrophysiological and behavioral effects of combined transcranial direct current stimulation and alcohol approach bias retraining in hazardous drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40(10):2124–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    European Gaming and Betting Association. Market reality. 2017.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Gainsbury SM. Online gambling addiction: the relationship between internet gambling and disordered gambling. Curr Addict Rep. 2015;2(2):185.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Statista. Size of the online gaming market from 2003 to 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars). 2017.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Yardley L, Patrick K, Choudhury T, Michie S. Current issues and future directions for research into digital behavior change interventions. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(5):814–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Versluis A, Verkuil B, Spinhoven P, van der Ploeg MM, Brosschot JF. Changing mental health and positive psychological Well-being using ecological momentary interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2016;18(6):e152.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Khadjesari Z, Murray E, Hewitt C, Hartley S, Godfrey C. Can stand-alone computerbased interventions reduce alcohol consumption? A systematic review. Addiction. 2011;106(2):267–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Kraft P, Yardley L. Current issues and new directions in psychology and health: what is the future of digital interventions for health behaviour change? Psychol Health. 2009;24(6):615–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Murray E. Web-based interventions for behavior change and self-management: potential, pitfalls, and progress. Med 20. 2012;1(2):e3.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Cunningham JA, Hodgins DC, Toneatto T, Murphy M. A randomized controlled trial of a personalized feedback intervention for problem gamblers. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31586.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Andersson G, Cuijpers P, Carlbring P, Riper H, Hedman E. Guided internet-based vs. face- to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry. 2014;13(3):288–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Portnoy DB, Scott-Sheldon LA, Johnson BT, Carey MP. Computer-delivered interventions for health promotion and behavioral risk reduction: a meta-analysis of 75 randomized controlled trials, 1988–2007. Prev Med. 2008;47(1):3–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Shingleton RM, Palfai TP. Technology-delivered adaptations of motivational interviewing for health-related behaviors: a systematic review of the current research. Patient Educ Couns. 2016;99(1):17–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Webb T, Joseph J, Yardley L, Michie S. Using the internet to promote health behavior change: 1666 a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. J Med Internet Res. 2010;12(1):e4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Fiordelli M, Diviani N, Schulz PJ. Mapping mHealth research: a decade of evolution. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(5):e95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Free C, Phillips G, Galli L, Watson L, Felix L, Edwards P, Patel V, Haines A. The effectiveness of mobile-health technology-based health behaviour change or disease management interventions for health care consumers: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2013;10(1):e1001362.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Zhao J, Freeman B, Li M. Can mobile phone apps influence people’s health behavior change? An evidence review. J Med Internet Res. 2016;18(11):e287.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    DeSmet A, Van Ryckeghem D, Compernolle S, Baranowski T, Thompson D, Crombez G, et al. A meta-analysis of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion. Prev Med. 2014;69:95–107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Johnson D, Deterding S, Kuhn K-A, Staneva A, Stoyanov S, Hides L. Gamification for health and wellbeing: a systematic review of the literature. Internet Interv. 2016;6:89–106.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Primack BA, Carroll MV, McNamara M, Klem ML, King B, Rich M, et al. Role of video games in improving health-related outcomes: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(6):630–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Turner WA, Casey LM. Outcomes associated with virtual reality in psychological interventions: where are we now? Clin Psychol Rev. 2014;34(8):634–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Valmaggia LR, Latif L, Kempton MJ, Rus-Calafell M. Virtual reality in the psychological treatment for mental health problems: an systematic review of recent evidence. Psychiatry Res. 2016;236:189–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Hodgins DC. Becoming a winner: defeating problem gambling: a self-help manual for problem gamblers. Calgary, AB, Canada: Calgary Regional Health Authority; 2002.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Ladouceur R, Lachance S. Overcoming pathological gambling. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Carlbring P, Smit F. Randomized trial of internet-delivered self-help with telephone support for pathological gamblers. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76(6):1090–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Carlbring P, Degerman N, Jonsson J, Andersson G. Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up. Cogn Behav Ther. 2012;41(4):321–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Castren S, Pankakoski M, Tamminen M, Lipsanen J, Ladouceur R, Lahti T. Internet-based CBT intervention for gamblers in Finland: experiences from the field. Scand J Psychol. 2013;54(3):230–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Cunningham JA, Hodgins DC, Toneatto T, Rai A, Cordingley J. Pilot study of a personalized feedback intervention for problem gamblers. Behav Ther. 2009;40:219–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Luquiens A, Lagadec M, Tanguy M, Reynaud M. Efficacy of online psychotherapies in poker gambling disorder: an online randomized clinical trial. Eur Psychiatry. 2015;30:1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Canale N, Vieno A, Griffiths MD, Marino C, Chieco F, Disperati F, Andriolo S, Santinello M. The efficacy of a web-based gambling intervention program for high school students: a preliminary randomized study. Comput Hum Behav. 2016;55:946–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Cunningham JA, Hodgins DC, Bennett K, Bennett A, Talevski M, Mackenzie CS, Hendershot CS. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):624.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Hodgins DC, Fick GH, Murray R, Cunningham JA. Internet-based interventions for disordered gamblers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of online self-directed cognitive-behavioural motivational therapy. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Swan JL. The evaluation of an Internet-based self-directed motivational enhancement inter- vention for problem and pathological gamblers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary. 2014.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Hodgins DC, Currie SR, Currie G, Fick GH. Randomized trial of brief motivational treat- ments for pathological gamblers: more is not necessarily better. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77(5):950–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    MacLeod C, Clarke PJ. The attentional bias modification approach to anxiety intervention. Clin Psychol Sci. 2015;3(1):58–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Wiers RW, Houben K, Fadardi JS, van Beek P, Rhemtulla MT, Cox WM. Alcohol cognitive bias modification training for problem drinkers over the web. Addict Behav. 2015b;40:21–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Bullen C, Rossen F, Newcombe D, Whittaker R, Strydom J. Smartphone-based Problem Gambling Evaluation and Technology Testing Initiative (‘SPGETTI’) feasibility study: final report. National Institute for Health Innovation & Centre for Addiction Research. Prepared for the Ministry of Health. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland UniServices Limited, The University of Auckland. 2015.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Loranger C, Bouchard S, Boulanger J, Robillard G. Validation of two virtual environments for the prevention and treatment of pathological gambling. J Cyber Ther Rehabil. 2011;4:233–5.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Giroux I, Faucher-Gravel A, St-Hilaire A, Boudreault C, Jacques C, Bouchard S. Gambling exposure in virtual reality and modification of urge to gamble. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013;16(3):224–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Park CB, Park SM, Gwak AR, Sohn BK, Lee JY, Jung HY, Choi SW, Choi JS. The effect of repeated exposure to virtual gambling cues on the urge to gamble. Addict Behav. 2015;41:61–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Tárrega S, Castro-Carreras L, Fernández-Aranda F, Granero R, Giner-Bartolomé C, Aymamí N, et al. A serious videogame as an additional therapy tool for training emotional regulation and impulsivity control in severe gambling disorder. Front Psych. 2015;6:1721.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    van der Stel J. Precision in addiction care: does it make a difference? Yale J Biol Med. 2015;88(4):415–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Suomi A, Dowling NA, Jackson AC. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Addict Behav. 2014;39:1741–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Conrod PJ, Stewart SH, Pihl RO, Côté S, Fontaine V, Dongier M. Efficacy of brief coping skills interventions that match different personality profiles of female substance abusers. Psychol Addict Behav. 2000;14:231–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Conrod PJ, Stewart SH, Comeau MN, Maclean M. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions targeting personality risk factors for youth alcohol misuse. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2006;35:550–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Blaszczynski A, Nower L. A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction. 2002;97:487–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Juodis M, Stewart S. A method for classifying pathological gamblers according to “enhancement,” “coping,” and “low emotion regulation” subtypes. J Gambl Iss. 2016;34:201–20.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Stewart SH, Buckley M, Darredeau C, Sabourin B, Zahradnik M, Hodgins D, Barrett SP. Brief escape and action treatment for gambling (BEAT gambling): action and escape therapist manuals. Halifax, Canada: Dalhousie University, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience; 2011.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Gooding P, Tarrier N. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive behavioral interventions to reduce problem gambling: hedging our bets? Behav Res Ther. 2009;47:592–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Stewart MJ, Davis MacNevin PL, Hodgins DC, Barrett SP, Swansburg J, Stewart SH. Motivation-matched approach to the treatment of problem gambling: a case series pilot study. J Gambl Iss. 2016;33:124–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Stewart SH, Zack M. Development and psychometric evaluation of a three-dimensional gambling motives questionnaire. Addiction. 2008;103(7):1110–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Stewart SH. Short-term outcome of a motive-matched treatment for coping and enhancement gamblers: a randomized controlled trial. Invited presentation at the annual meeting of the Alberta Gambling Research Institute, Banff, Alberta, Mar 2013.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Ferrey AE, Burleigh TJ, Fenske MJ. Stimulus-category competition, inhibition, and affective devaluation: a novel account of the uncanny valley. Front Psych. 2015;6:249.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Larsen H, Kong G, Becker D, Cousijn J, Boendermaker W, Cavallo D, Khrishnan-Sarin S, Wiers RW. Implicit motivational processes underlying smoking in American and Dutch adolescents. Front Psych. 2014;5(51).Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Hayes SC. Acceptance and commitment therapy and the new behavior therapies: mindfulness, acceptance, and relationship. In: Hayes SC, Follette VM, Linehan MM, editors. Mindfulness and acceptance: expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press; 2004. p. 1–29.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Shonin E, Van Gordon W, Griffiths MD. Mindfulness as a treatment for behavioral addiction. J Addict Res Ther. 2014;5:e122.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Marlatt GA. Buddhist philosophy and the treatment of addictive behavior. Cogn Behav Pract. 2002;9(1):44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Kabat-Zinn J. Coming to our senses: healing ourselves and the world through mindfulness. UK: Hachette; 2005.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Griffiths M, Shonin ÁE, Van Gordon ÁW. Mindfulness as a treatment for gambling disorder: current directions and issues. J Gambl Commer Gam Res. 2016;1(1):47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    de Lisle SM, Dowling NA, Sabura Allen J. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for problem gambling. Clin Case Stud. 2011;10(3):210–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Chiesa A, Serretti A. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2011;187(3):441–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Bowen S, Witkiewitz K, Dillworth TM, Chawla N, Simpson TL, Ostafin BD, et al. Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population. Psychol Addict Behav. 2006;20(3):343–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Toneatto T. Mindfulness. In: Miller PM, editor. Encyclopedia of addiction. London: Elsevier; 2013.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Lakey CE, Campbell WK, Brown KW, Goodie AS. Dispositional mindfulness as a predictor of the severity of gambling outcomes. Personal Individ Differ. 2007;43(7):1698–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    de Lisle SM, Dowling NA, Allen JS. Mechanisms of action in the relationship between mindfulness and problem gambling behaviour. Int J Ment Heal Addict. 2014;12(2):206–25.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Riley B. Experiential avoidance mediates the association between thought suppression and mindfulness with problem gambling. J Gambl Stud. 2014;30(1):163–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    McKeith CFA, Rock AJ, Clark GI. Trait mindfulness, problem-gambling severity, altered state of awareness and urge to gamble in poker-machine gamblers. J Gambl Stud. 2016:1–16.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Shonin E, van Gordon W, Griffiths MD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and meditation awareness training (MAT) for the treatment of co-occurring schizophrenia and pathological gambling: a case study. Int J Ment Heal Addict. 2014;12(2):181–96.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Toneatto T, Vettese L, Nguyen L. The role of mindfulness in the cognitive-behavioural treatment of problem gambling. J Gambl Iss. 2007;19(19):91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Korman L, Collins J, McMain S, Skinner W, Toneatto T. Concurrent gambling, substance use and anger: Development of a brief integrated treatment. Final Report. Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre. 2005.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Christensen DR, Dowling NA, Jackson AC, Brown M, Russo J, Francis KL, Umemoto A. A proof of concept for using brief dialectical behavior therapy as a treatment for problem gambling. Behav Chang. 2013;30(2):117–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Toneatto T, Pillai S, Courtice EL. Mindfulness-enhanced cognitive behavior therapy for problem gambling: a controlled pilot study. Int J Ment Heal Addict. 2014;12(2):197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Chen P, Jindani F, Perry J, Turner NL. Mindfulness and problem gambling treatment. Asian J Gambl Issues Public Health. 2014;4(1):2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    de Lisle SM, Dowling NA, Allen JS. Mindfulness and problem gambling: a review of the literature. J Gambl Stud. 2012;28(4):719–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Spijkerman MPJ, Pots WTM, Bohlmeijer ET. Effectiveness of online mindfulness-based interventions in improving mental health: a review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clin Psychol Rev. 2016;45:102–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leroy Snippe
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marilisa Boffo
    • 1
  • Sherry H. Stewart
    • 3
  • Geert Dom
    • 2
    • 4
  • Reinout W. Wiers
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands
  2. 2.University of AntwerpAntwerpenBelgium
  3. 3.Dalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  4. 4.Antwerp University HospitalEdegemBelgium

Personalised recommendations