Advertisement

Environmental Pollution

  • Joseph Awange
  • John Kiema
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

There exist various definitions to the word pollution depending on one’s jurisdiction and the laws of a particular country. Springer [1, see references therein] looks at the meaningful concept of defining pollution in international law by posing the questions: “What are you talking about when you are talking about pollution? What is pollution? How would you define it if you are going to remove the concept of damage from it?” These questions are not easily answerable and as Springer [1] acknowledges, the term pollution is a word whose precise meaning in law, particularly international law, is not easily discerned [1]. It has been used in a wide variety of contexts, from international conventions to pessimistic speeches about the state of the environment, to describe different levels and kinds of man-induced changes in the natural world [1].

References

  1. 1.
    Springer AL (1977) Towards a meaningful concept of pollution in international law. Int Comp Law Quarte 26:531–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gibson J, MacKenzie D (2007) Using global positioning systems in household surveys for better economics and better policy. World Bank Res Obs 22(2):217–241.  https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/lkm009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mackenzie FT (2003) Our changing planet; an introduction to earth system science and global environmental change, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Awange JL, Ong’ang’a O (2006) Lake Victoria-ecology. Resource of the Lake basin and environment, Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Opande T (2008) Planning solid waste collection in low income settlements of Nyalenda and Ondiek in Kisumu town, Kenya. M.Sc. thesis. Maseno University, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kairu JK (2001) Wetland-use and impact on Lake Victoria. Lakes Reservoirs: Resour Manag 6(2):117–125.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1770.2001.00135.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aseto O, Ong’ang’a O (2003) Lake Victoria (Kenya) and its environs: resource opportunites and challenges. Africa Herald Publishing House, Kendu Bay, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Odada EO, Olago DO, Kulindwa K, Ntiba M, Wandiga S (2004) Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyzes. Royal Swed Acad Sci 33(1):13–17Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Corbley KP, Stauffer R (2006) Curbing Water Pollution with Mobile GIS: mobile data collection with handheld GPS units facilitates a San Francisco utility’s quest for cleaner water, enabling a two-pronged effort to build a storm drain GIS layer and educate citizens about pollution. Geospatial Solutions. http://www.gpsworld.com/gis/local-government/curbing-water-pollution-with-mobile-gis-5361 (Accessed on 20/01/2011)
  10. 10.
    Odhiambo GO, Kinyua AM, Gatebe CK, Awange JL (2010) Motor vehicles air pollution in Nairobi. Kenya. Res J Environ Earth Sci 2(4):178–187Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weng Q (2010) Remote Sensing and GIS Integration: theories, methods, and applications. McGraw-Hill, 416pGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nichol JE (2005) Remote sensing of urban heat islands by day and night. Photogram Eng Remote Sens 71:613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oke TR (1988) The urban energy balance. Prog Phys Geogr 12:471–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Voogt JA, Oke TR (2003) Thermal remote sensing of urban climate. Remote Sens Environ 86:370–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sifakis NL, Soulakellis NA, Paronis DK (1998) Quantitative mapping of air pollution density using earth observations: a new processing method and application to an Urban area. Int J Remote Sens 19(17):3289–3300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ung A, Wald L, Ranchin T, Weber C, Hirsch J, Perron G, Kleinpeter J (2001) Satellite data for air pollution mapping over a city- virtual stations. Proceeding of the 21th EARSeL Symposium. New Solutions For A New Millenium, Paris, France, Observing Our Environment From Space, pp 14–16Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wald L, Baleynaud J-M (1999) Observing air quality over the city of Nantes by means of LANDSAT thermal infrared data. Int J Remote Sens 20(5):947–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mulaku GC, Kariuki LW (2002) Mapping air pollution in Nairobi, Kenya. Afr J Environ Assess Manage 4(1):29–37 [ISSN 1436 7890]Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carletti R, Picci M, Romano D (2000) Kriging and bilinear methods forestimating spatial pattern of atmospheric pollutants. Environ Monit Assess 63:341–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Collins S, Briggs Smallbone K, D, (1995) A GIS approach to modelling small area variations in air pollution within a complex urban environment. In: Fisher P (ed) Innovations in GIS 2. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 245–253Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Denby B, Walker SE, Horálek OJ, Eben K, Fiala J (2005) Interpolation and assimilation methods for European scale air quality assessment and mapping, Part I: Review and Recommendations. European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change Technical Paper, vol vol., p 7Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tayanc M (2000) An assessment of spatial and temporal variation of sulphur dioxide levels over istanbul Turkey. Environ Pollut 107(1):61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Briggs D (2005) The role of GIS: coping with space (and time) in air pollution exposure assessment. J Toxicol Environ Health 68(13–14):1243–1261.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390590936094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jerrett M, Burnett RT, Kanaroglou P, Eyles J, Finkelstein N, Giovis C, Brook JR (2001) A GIS: environmental justice analysis of particulate air pollution in Hamilton. Canada, Environ Plann 33(6):955–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maantay J (2005) Asthma and airpollution in the bronx: methodological and data considerations in using GIS for environmental justice and health research, health and place: environmental Justice, population health, critical theory and GIS 13 (1):32–56, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schreiner C, Branzila M, Trandabat A, Ciobanu RC (2006) Air quality and pollution mapping system, using remote measurements and gps technology. Glob NEST J 8(3):315–323Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Municipal Council of Kisumu (2004) Kisumu City Environmental Profile. UN HabitatGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang S, Dong J, Cheng B (2000) Characteristics of air particulate matter and their sources in urban and rural area of Beijing. China J Environ Sci 12:402–409Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Taylor MAP, Woolley JE, Zito R (2000) Integration of the global positioning system and geographical information systems for traffic congestion studies. Transp Res Part C 8(1–6):257–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-090X(00)00015-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zito R, D’Este GM, Taylor MAP (1995) Global positioning systems in the time domain: how useful a tool for intelligent vehicle-highway systems. Transp Res C3(4):193–209Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zito R, Taylor MAP (1994) The use of GPS in travel time surveys. Traffic Eng Control 35(12):685–690Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Leitman J (2000) Rapid environmental assessment: lessons from cities in the developing world, vol 1. Methodology and Preliminary Findings, Urban Management Programme, UNHCS, UNDP and the World BankGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoornweg D, Thomas L (1999) What a waste: solid waste management in Asia. Urban Development Sector Unit East Asia and Pacific Region, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schubeler P, Wehrle K, Christen J (1996) Conceptual Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low Income Countries. UMP working papers series no. 9, UNDP/SDC/UNCHS/ World Bank, UMP/ SKATGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Van Beukering P, Sekher M, Gerlagh R, Kumar V, (1999) Analyzing urban solid waste in developing countries; a perspective on Bangalore, India. In: International institute for environment and development (IIED), Working paper No. 24. CREED, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UNCHS) and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) (1996) International source book on environmentally sound technologies for municipal solid waste management. IECT Technical Publication Series, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Senkwe B, Mwale A (2001) Solid Waste in Kitwe, Zambia. A solid waste characterization study for the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Phase I. A consultancy report for SINPA, Zambia; Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies, Netherlands; and the Copper Belt University, Kitwe, ZambiaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Awange JL, Obera B (2007) Motor vehicles: are they emerging threats to Lake Victoria and its environment? Water, Air, Soil Pollut 182(1–4):43–56.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-006-9319-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lottermoser B (2003) Mine wastes. Characterization, treatment and environmental impacts. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Manual Laboratory (2008) ENV 310 LandManagement PracticalManual. School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Learning MaterialsGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johnson R, Wichern D (2007) Applied multivariate statistical analysis, 6th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.JGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    US-EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (1994) Technical document. Acid mine drainage prediction. EPA 530-R-94-036; NTIS PB94-201829Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations