GNSS Sensing of Climate Variability

  • Joseph Awange
  • John Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Poor reliability of radiosonde records across most developing countries in the southern hemisphere imposes serious challenges in understanding the structure of upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric (UTLS) region, i.e., the tropopause. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission launched in April 2006 has overcome many observational limitations inherent in conventional atmospheric sounding instruments. This chapter presents the study undertaken by Khandu et al. [2] that examined the interannual variability of UTLS temperature over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin in South Asia using monthly averaged COSMIC radio occultation (RO) data, together with two global reanalyses.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

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