Advertisement

Sex- and Gender-Specific Aspects of Migraine Treatment

  • Daphne S. van CasterenEmail author
  • Emile G. M. Couturier
  • Antoinette Maassen van den Brink
Chapter
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)

Abstract

Migraine prevalence is three times higher in women than in men, which is mainly due to sex hormone differences. Hormonal fluctuations related to the menstruation and menopausal transition phase are associated with increased incidence of migraine attacks. Especially migraine attacks triggered by hormonal changes are more resistant to pharmacological treatment. This chapter describes the current knowledge on the role of hormonal fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle in migraine patients. Further, specific treatments for pure menstrual migraine, menstrually related migraine, and perimenopausal migraine are discussed.

Keywords

Migraine Menstruation Menopause Estrogen Progesterone 

References

  1. 1.
    Vetvik KG, MacGregor EA. Sex differences in the epidemiology, clinical features, and pathophysiology of migraine. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(1):76–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Victor TW, Hu X, Campbell JC, Buse DC, Lipton RB. Migraine prevalence by age and sex in the United States: a life-span study. Cephalalgia. 2010;30(9):1065–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Celentano DD, Reed ML. Prevalence of migraine headache in the United States. Relation to age, income, race, and other sociodemographic factors. JAMA. 1992;267(1):64–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    MacGregor EA, Hackshaw A. Prevalence of migraine on each day of the natural menstrual cycle. Neurology. 2004;63(2):351–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia. 2013;33(9):629–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pavlovic JM, Stewart WF, Bruce CA, Gorman JA, Sun H, Buse DC, et al. Burden of migraine related to menses: results from the AMPP study. J Headache Pain. 2015;16:24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    MacGregor EA. Contraception and headache. Headache. 2013;53(2):247–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sulak PJ, Scow RD, Preece C, Riggs MW, Kuehl TJ. Hormone withdrawal symptoms in oral contraceptive users. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95(2):261–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    MacGregor EA. Migraine headache in perimenopausal and menopausal women. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13(5):399–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacGregor EA. Perimenopausal migraine in women with vasomotor symptoms. Maturitas. 2012;71(1):79–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silberstein SD, Merriam GR. Estrogens, progestins, and headache. Neurology. 1991;41(6):786–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mattsson P. Hormonal factors in migraine: a population-based study of women aged 40 to 74 years. Headache. 2003;43(1):27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang SJ, Fuh JL, Lu SR, Juang KD, Wang PH. Migraine prevalence during menopausal transition. Headache. 2003;43(5):470–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Diamond S, Diamond ML, Reed M. Prevalence and burden of migraine in the United States: data from the American Migraine Study II. Headache. 2001;41(7):646–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reed BG, Carr BR. The normal menstrual cycle and the control of ovulation. In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, Feingold KR, Grossman A, Hershman JM, et al., editors. Endotext. South Dartmouth, MA: MDText.com, Inc.; 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Macgregor EA. Headache in pregnancy. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014;20(1 Neurology of Pregnancy):128–47.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sulak P, Willis S, Kuehl T, Coffee A, Clark J. Headaches and oral contraceptives: impact of eliminating the standard 7-day placebo interval. Headache. 2007;47(1):27–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chai NC, Peterlin BL, Calhoun AH. Migraine and estrogen. Curr Opin Neurol. 2014;27(3):315–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Somerville BW. Estrogen-withdrawal migraine. I. Duration of exposure required and attempted prophylaxis by premenstrual estrogen administration. Neurology. 1975;25(3):239–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pavlovic JM, Allshouse AA, Santoro NF, Crawford SL, Thurston RC, Neal-Perry GS, et al. Sex hormones in women with and without migraine: evidence of migraine-specific hormone profiles. Neurology. 2016;87(1):49–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ibrahimi K, van Oosterhout WP, van Dorp W, Danser AH, Garrelds IM, Kushner SA, et al. Reduced trigeminovascular cyclicity in patients with menstrually related migraine. Neurology. 2015;84(2):125–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mattsson P. Serum levels of androgens and migraine in postmenopausal women. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;103(5):487–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Patacchioli FR, Monnazzi P, Simeoni S, De Filippis S, Salvatori E, Coloprisco G, et al. Salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) and testosterone in women with chronic migraine. J Headache Pain. 2006;7(2):90–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nappi RE, Sances G, Sommacal A, Detaddei S, Facchinetti F, Cristina S, et al. Different effects of tibolone and low-dose EPT in the management of postmenopausal women with primary headaches. Menopause (New York, NY). 2006;13(5):818–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Al-Waili NS. Treatment of menstrual migraine with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor mefenamic acid: double-blind study with placebo. Eur J Med Res. 2000;5(4):176–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mannix LK, Martin VT, Cady RK, Diamond ML, Lener SE, White JD, et al. Combination treatment for menstrual migraine and dysmenorrhea using sumatriptan-naproxen: two randomized controlled trials. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(1):106–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Diamond S, Freitag FG, Diamond ML, Urban GJ. Subcutaneous dihydroergotamine mesylate (DHE) in the treatment of menstrual migraine. Headache Quart. 1996;7(2):145–7.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maasumi K, Tepper SJ, Kriegler JS. Menstrual migraine and treatment options: review. Headache. 2017;57(2):194–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nierenburg Hdel C, Ailani J, Malloy M, Siavoshi S, Hu NN, Yusuf N. Systematic review of preventive and acute treatment of menstrual migraine. Headache. 2015;55(8):1052–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Savi L, Omboni S, Lisotto C, Zanchin G, Ferrari MD, Zava D, et al. Efficacy of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of menstrually related migraine: analysis of a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, multicenter, Italian, comparative study versus rizatriptan. J Headache Pain. 2011;12(6):609–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Savi L, Omboni S, Lisotto C, Zanchin G, Ferrari MD, Zava D, et al. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, Italian study of frovatriptan versus rizatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine. J Headache Pain. 2011;12(2):219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Allais G, Tullo V, Omboni S, Pezzola D, Zava D, Benedetto C, et al. Frovatriptan vs. other triptans for the acute treatment of oral contraceptive-induced menstrual migraine: pooled analysis of three double-blind, randomized, crossover, multicenter studies. Neurol Sci. 2013;34(Suppl 1):S83–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pringsheim T, Davenport WJ, Dodick D. Acute treatment and prevention of menstrually related migraine headache: evidence-based review. Neurology. 2008;70(17):1555–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sances G, Martignoni E, Fioroni L, Blandini F, Facchinetti F, Nappi G. Naproxen sodium in menstrual migraine prophylaxis: a double-blind placebo controlled study. Headache. 1990;30(11):705–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Allais G, Bussone G, De Lorenzo C, Castagnoli Gabellari I, Zonca M, Mana O, et al. Naproxen sodium in short-term prophylaxis of pure menstrual migraine: pathophysiological and clinical considerations. Neurol Sci. 2007;28(Suppl 2):S225–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    MacGregor EA, Frith A, Ellis J, Aspinall L, Hackshaw A. Prevention of menstrual attacks of migraine: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Neurology. 2006;67(12):2159–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    D’Alessandro R, Gamberini G, Lozito A, Sacquegna T. Menstrual migraine: intermittent prophylaxis with a timed-release pharmacological formulation of dihydroergotamine. Cephalalgia. 1983;3(Suppl 1):156–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silberstein SD, Elkind AH, Schreiber C, Keywood C. A randomized trial of frovatriptan for the intermittent prevention of menstrual migraine. Neurology. 2004;63(2):261–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brandes JL, Poole A, Kallela M, Schreiber CP, MacGregor EA, Silberstein SD, et al. Short-term frovatriptan for the prevention of difficult-to-treat menstrual migraine attacks. Cephalalgia. 2009;29(11):1133–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tuchman MM, Hee A, Emeribe U, Silberstein S. Oral zolmitriptan in the short-term prevention of menstrual migraine: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. CNS Drugs. 2008;22(10):877–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Newman L, Mannix LK, Landy S, Silberstein S, Lipton RB, Putnam DG, et al. Naratriptan as short-term prophylaxis of menstrually associated migraine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Headache. 2001;41(3):248–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mannix LK, Savani N, Landy S, Valade D, Shackelford S, Ames MH, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of naratriptan for short-term prevention of menstrually related migraine: data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Headache. 2007;47(7):1037–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hu Y, Guan X, Fan L, Jin L. Triptans in prevention of menstrual migraine: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Headache Pain. 2013;14:7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Silberstein SD, Holland S, Freitag F, Dodick DW, Argoff C, Ashman E. Evidence-based guideline update: pharmacologic treatment for episodic migraine prevention in adults: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1337–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tepper SJ. Medication-overuse headache. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18(4):807–22.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coffee AL, Sulak PJ, Hill AJ, Hansen DJ, Kuehl TJ, Clark JW. Extended cycle combined oral contraceptives and prophylactic frovatriptan during the hormone-free interval in women with menstrual-related migraines. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014;23(4):310–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    De Leo V, Scolaro V, Musacchio MC, Di Sabatino A, Morgante G, Cianci A. Combined oral contraceptives in women with menstrual migraine without aura. Fertil Steril. 2011;96(4):917–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nappi RE, Sances G, Allais G, Terreno E, Benedetto C, Vaccaro V, et al. Effects of an estrogen-free, desogestrel-containing oral contraceptive in women with migraine with aura: a prospective diary-based pilot study. Contraception. 2011;83(3):223–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Merki-Feld GS, Imthurn B, Langner R, Sandor PS, Gantenbein AR. Headache frequency and intensity in female migraineurs using desogestrel-only contraception: a retrospective pilot diary study. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(5):340–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Murray SC, Muse KN. Effective treatment of severe menstrual migraine headaches with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and “add-back” therapy. Fertil Steril. 1997;67(2):390–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lichten EM, Lichten JB, Whitty AJ, Pieper D. The use of leuprolide acetate in the diagnosis and treatment of menstrual migraine: the role of artifically-induced menopause. Headache Quart. 1995;6(4):313–6.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ziaei S, Kazemnejad A, Sedighi A. The effect of vitamin E on the treatment of menstrual migraine. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15(1):Cr16–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferrante F, Fusco E, Calabresi P, Cupini LM. Phyto-oestrogens in the prophylaxis of menstrual migraine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2004;27(3):137–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Burke BE, Olson RD, Cusack BJ. Randomized, controlled trial of phytoestrogen in the prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002;56(6):283–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, Genazzani AR, Nappi G. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache. 1991;31(5):298–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Martin VT, Pavlovic J, Fanning KM, Buse DC, Reed ML, Lipton RB. Perimenopause and menopause are associated with high frequency headache in women with migraine: results of the American migraine prevalence and prevention study. Headache. 2016;56(2):292–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Misakian AL, Langer RD, Bensenor IM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and migraine headache. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003;12(10):1027–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Aegidius KL, Zwart JA, Hagen K, Schei B, Stovner LJ. Hormone replacement therapy and headache prevalence in postmenopausal women. The Head-HUNT study. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14(1):73–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    MacGregor A. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen replacement on migraine. Cephalalgia. 1999;19(2):124–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daphne S. van Casteren
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Emile G. M. Couturier
    • 3
  • Antoinette Maassen van den Brink
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pharmacology, Department of Internal MedicineErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Boerhaave Medisch CentrumAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations