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Microbial Role in the Ecology of Antarctic Plants

  • Júnia Schultz
  • Alexandre Soares RosadoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Polar Sciences book series (SPPS)

Abstract

Antarctica is a true mosaic of extremes. It is a continent of superlatives, with low temperatures, freezing and thawing cycles, high salinity and intense solar radiation, among other environmental extremes. These unique conditions exert evolutionary pressure, which selects the biological community to develop in place, such as the microbial community. Ice-free soils represent a very small proportion of the total land area of Antarctica, and in these areas, a scarce Antarctic vegetation grows. The vegetation of these ice-free habitats is characterized by low coverage and low productivity, being mainly composed of lower plants, with only two vascular plant species, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. Climate change in Antarctica may present new threats to terrestrial ecosystems particularly by increasing the distribution of the native plants but also increasing the successful establishment of non-native species. It is known that the vegetation cover has an important role in the microbial diversity of Antarctic soils due that these microorganisms produce molecules that cooperate with the establishment and development of plants in harsh conditions and vice versa. Our chapter selects and discusses some of the few studies that describe microbe-plant interactions in Antarctica and how these interactions can modulate the distribution, diversity and abundance of native vascular plants and microbial diversity in Antarctica.

Keywords

Rhizospheric microbes Deschampsia antarctica Colobanthus quitensis Microbial diversity Development of plants 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Microbial Ecology, Institute of Microbiology Paulo de GóesFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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