Advertisement

Toward Conceptual Competence in Psychiatric Diagnosis: An Ecological Model for Critiques of the DSM

  • Justin M. Karter
  • Sarah R. Kamens
Chapter

Abstract

Dissatisfaction with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), once an exception within mainstream clinical literature, has become a new kind of norm in recent decades. Critiques of the DSM, now in its fifth edition, have been put forward by psychiatrists, psychologists, and other scholars from across the sciences and humanities, as well as by service users, families, and diverse stakeholder groups. In order to understand the multiple levels on which the DSM-5 has been critiqued, we apply an ecological systems model and attempt to synthesize a range of perspectives. A researcher or clinician should be equipped to consider potential effects of the diagnosis on a client or patient, technical issues in the testing of the diagnostic construct, major institutional players that have stakes in the definition of the disorder and its codification in the manual, broader social and political concerns about the use of particular diagnoses to disadvantage certain groups, and contemporary debates concerning the relationship between the brain and an individual’s experiences, thoughts, and behaviors. The ecological approach presented here offers a framework for teaching and developing such “conceptual competence” in psychiatric diagnosis. We also consider the ways in which an ecological model might be applied to future diagnostic paradigms.

Keywords

Psychiatric diagnosis Philosophy of psychiatry Psychiatric nosology DSM-V Institutional corruption Alternatives to diagnosis 

References

  1. 1.
    Adame AL, Knudson RM. Beyond the counter-narrative: exploring alternative narratives of recovery from the psychiatric survivor movement. Narrat Inq. 2007;17(2):157–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahn WK, Proctor CC, Flanagan EH. Mental health clinicians’ beliefs about the biological, psychological, and environmental bases of mental disorders. Cogn Sci. 2009;33(2):147–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allsopp K, Kinderman P. A proposal to introduce formal recording of psychosocial adversities associated with mental health using ICD-10 codes. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017;4(9):664–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Publishing. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition: DSM-5. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Angell M. The truth about the drug companies: how they deceive us and what to do about it. New York: Random House, Incorporated; 2005.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bains J. Race, culture and psychiatry: a history of transcultural psychiatry. Hist Psychiatry. 2005;16(2):139–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bartholomew RE. Exotic deviance: medicalizing cultural idioms – from strangeness to illness. Boulder: University Press of Colorado; 2000. Retrieved from: https://www1.bps.org.uk/system/files/Public%20files/cat-1325.pdf
  8. 8.
    Batstra L, Frances A. Holding the line against diagnostic inflation in psychiatry. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81(1):5–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bell V. Why we need to get better at critiquing psychiatric diagnosis; 2017. Available from: https://mindhacks.com/2017/09/19/why-we-need-to-get-better-at-critiquing-diagnosis/
  10. 10.
    Bilder R, Cuthbert B, Carpenter W, Ford J, Marder S, Hoffman R, et al., editors. The NIMH research domain criteria (RDoC) initiative: high road to rational psychiatry or barrier to current Progress? Neuropsychopharmacology. London: Nature Publishing Group; 2014. p. 39. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279024462_The_NIMH_Research_Domain_Criteria_RDoC_Initiative_High_Road_to_Rational_Psychiatry_or_Barrier_to_Current_ProgressGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bolton D, Hill J. Mind, meaning, and mental disorder: the nature of causal explanation in psychology and psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borsboom D, Rhemtulla M, Cramer A, Van der Maas H, Scheffer M, Dolan C. Kinds versus continua: a review of psychometric approaches to uncover the structure of psychiatric constructs. Psychol Med. 2016;46(8):1567–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bourque F, van der Ven E, Malla A. A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first-and second-generation immigrants. Psychol Med. 2011;41(5):897–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bracken P, Thomas P, Timimi S, Asen E, Behr G, Beuster C, et al. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201(6):430–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bresnahan M, Begg MD, Brown A, Schaefer C, Sohler N, Insel B, et al. Race and risk of schizophrenia in a US birth cohort: another example of health disparity? Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36(4):751–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    British Psychological Society. Division of clinical psychology position statement on the classification of behaviour and experience in relation to functional psychiatric diagnoses: time for a paradigm shift; 2013. Retrieved from: https://www1.bps.org.uk/system/files/Public%20files/cat-1325.pdf.
  17. 17.
    Bruner J. The narrative construction of reality. Crit Inq. 1991;18(1):1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Caplan PJ. The debate about PMDD and Sarafem: suggestions for therapists. Women Ther. 2004;27(3–4):55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Caplan PJ. They say you’re crazy: how the world’s most powerful psychiatrists decide who’s normal. Reading: Addison-Wesley/Addison Wesley Longman; 1995.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carey B. Psychiatry manual drafters back down on diagnoses. The New York Times; 2012.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cartwright SA. Report on the diseases and physical peculiarities of the Negro race. New Orleans Med Surg J. 1851:691–715. [Reprinted in A. C. Caplan, H. T. Engelhardt and J. J. McCartney (Eds.), (1981). Concepts of Health and Disease (pp. 305–25). Reading: Addison-Wesley]Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chalmers DJ. Phenomenal concepts and the explanatory gap. In: Alter T, Walter S, editors. Phenomenal concepts and phenomenal knowledge: new essays on consciousness and physicalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 167.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cohen RJ, Swerdlik ME, Phillips SM. Psychological testing and assessment: an introduction to tests and measurement. Houston: Mayfield Publishing Company; 1996.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Compton MT, Shim RS. The social determinants of mental health. Focus. 2015;13(4):419–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Compton WM, Guze SB. The neo-Kraepelinian revolution in psychiatric diagnosis. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;245(4–5):196–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Conrad P, Schneider JW. Deviance and medicalization: from badness to sickness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cooke A, Kinderman P. “But what about real mental illnesses?” alternatives to the disease model approach to “schizophrenia”. J Humanist Psychol. 2018;58(1):47–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cosgrove L, Caplan P. Bias in psychiatric diagnosis. Lanham: Aronson; 2004.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cosgrove L, Riddle B. Gender bias and sex distribution of mental disorders in the DSM-IV-TR. In: Cosgrove L, Caplan P, editors. Bias in psychiatric diagnosis. Lanham: Aronson; 2004. p. 127–40.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cosgrove L, Krimsky S. A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 panel members’ financial associations with industry: a pernicious problem persists. PLoS Med. 2012;9(3):e1001190.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cosgrove L, Wheeler EE. Industry’s colonization of psychiatry: ethical and practical implications of financial conflicts of interest in the DSM-5. Fem Psychol. 2013;23(1):93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cosgrove L, Krimsky S, Wheeler EE, Kaitz J, Greenspan SB, DiPentima NL. Tripartite conflicts of interest and high stakes patent extensions in the DSM-5. Psychother Psychosom. 2014;83(2):106–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cosgrove L, Karter JM. The poison in the cure: neoliberalism and contemporary movements in mental health. Theory Psychol. 2018;28(5):669–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cosgrove L, Peters SM, Vaswani A, Karter JM. Institutional corruption in psychiatry: case analyses and solutions for reform. Soc Personal Psychol Compass. 2018:e12394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cosgrove L, Shaughnessy AF, Shaneyfelt T. When is a guideline not a guideline? The devil is in the details. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2018;23(1):33–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Crichton P, Carel H, Kidd IJ. Epistemic injustice in psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry Bull. 2017;41(2):65–70.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Crossley N. Not being mentally ill: social movements, system survivors and the oppositional habitus. Anthropol Med. 2004;11(2):161–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davies J. Political pills: psychopharmaceuticals and neoliberalism as mutually supporting. In: Davies J, editor. The sedated society. Cham: Springer Nature; 2017. p. 189–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dillon J, Hornstein GA. Hearing voices peer support groups: a powerful alternative for people in distress. Psychosis. 2013;5(3):286–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Drescher J. Out of DSM: depathologizing homosexuality. Behav Sci. 2015;5(4):565–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ecks S. The strange absence of things in the “culture” of the DSM-V. Can Med Assoc J. 2016;188(2):142–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eco U. The name of the rose. New York: Random House; 2004.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Elkins DN. Humanistic psychology: a clinical manifesto: a critique of clinical psychology and the need for progressive alternatives. Colorado Springs: University of Rockies Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Elliott C, Abadie R. Exploiting a research underclass in phase 1 clinical trials. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(22):2316–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Esposito L, Perez FM. Neoliberalism and the commodification of mental health. Humanit Soc. 2014;38(4):414–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fanon F. Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fassin D, Rechtman R. The empire of trauma: an inquiry into the condition of victimhood. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fava GA. The decline of pharmaceutical psychiatry and the increasing role of psychological medicine. Psychother Psychosom. 2009;78(4):220–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Feisthamel K, Schwartz R. Differences in mental health counselors’ diagnoses based on client race: an investigation of adjustment, childhood, and substance-related disorders. J Ment Health Couns. 2008;31(1):47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Firmin RL, Luther L, Lysaker PH, Minor KS, Salyers MP. Stigma resistance is positively associated with psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2016;175(1):118–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fletcher EH. Uncivilizing “mental illness”: contextualizing diverse mental states and Posthuman emotional ecologies within the Icarus project. J Med Humanit. 2018;39(1):29–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Forgione FA. Diagnostic dissent: experiences of perceived misdiagnosis and stigma in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. J Humanist Psychol. 2018;  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167818777151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Foucault M. History of madness. London: Routledge; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Foucault M. Madness and civilization. London: Routledge; 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frances A. DSM-5 ‘Psychosis risk syndrome’ – far too risky. Psychology Today; 2010. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/dsm5-in-distress/201003/dsm5-psychosis-risk-syndrome-far-too-risky. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  56. 56.
    Frances A. Psychologists start petition against DSM 5: a users’ revolt should capture APA attention. Psychology Today; 2011. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/dsm5-in-distress/201110/psychologists-start-petition-against-dsm-5. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  57. 57.
    Frances A. Follow the money. Huffington Post; 2012. Available from: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/allen-frances/follow-the-money_4_b_1567113.html
  58. 58.
    Frances A. Newsflash from APA meeting: DSM-5 has flunked its reliability tests. Psychology Today; 2012. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/dsm5-in-distress/201205/newsflash-apa-meeting-dsm-5-has-flunked-its-reliability-tests. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  59. 59.
    Frances A. DSM-5 field trials discredit the American Psychiatric Association. Huffington Post; 2012. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/allen-frances/dsm-5-field-trials-discre_b_2047621.html. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  60. 60.
    Frances A. Predicting psychosis risk is pretty risky. Huffington Post; 2012. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/allen-frances/psychosis-risk_b_1289022.html. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  61. 61.
    Frances A. Diagnosing the DSM. New York Times; 2012. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/12/opinion/break-up-the-psychiatric-monopoly.html. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  62. 62.
    Frances A. DSM in philosophyland: curiouser and curiouser. In: Paris J, Phillips J, editors. Making the DSM-5. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Frances AJ, Widiger T. Psychiatric diagnosis: lessons from the DSM-IV past and cautions for the DSM-5 future. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2012;8:109–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fricker M. Epistemic injustice: power and the ethics of knowing. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fried EI. Moving forward: how depression heterogeneity hinders progress in treatment and research. Expert Rev Neurother. 2017;17(5):423–5.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2017.1307737.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fried E. Open science framework; 2018. Available from: https://osf.io/rc2qb/
  67. 67.
    Fried EI, Epskamp S, Nesse RM, Tuerlinckx F, Borsboom D. What are ‘good’ depression symptoms? Comparing the centrality of DSM and non-DSM symptoms of depression in a network analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;189:314–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fulford KWM, Thornton T, Graham G. Oxford textbook of philosophy and psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fusar-Poli P, Bonoldi I, Yung AR, Borgwardt S, Kempton MJ, Valmaggia L, et al. Predicting psychosis: meta-analysis of transition outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(3):220–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ginat J, Kamens SR. Experiences of hospitalization in persons diagnosed with psychotic disorders: phenomenology and relationship to symptom profiles. ISPS convention, Liverpool; 2017.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goicoechea J. Invoking and inscribing mental illness: a discursive analysis of diagnostic terminology in inpatient treatment planning meetings. Fem Psychol. 2013;23(1):107–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Goldacre B. Bad pharma: how drug companies mislead doctors and harm patients. London: Macmillan; 2014.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gone JP. Alternative knowledges and the future of community psychology: provocations from an American Indian healing tradition. Am J Community Psychol. 2016;58(3–4):314–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hacking I. Kinds of people: moving targets. In: Proceedings-British Academy, vol. 151. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc; 2007. p. 285–317. https://www.britac.ac.uk/sites/default/files/pba151p285.pdf. Accessed 17 July 2018.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hacking I. Mad travelers: reflections on the reality of transient mental illnesses. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hacking I. The looping effects of human kinds. In: Sperber D, Premack D, Premack AJ, editors. Symposia of the Fyssen foundation. causal cognition: a multidisciplinary debate. New York: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press; 1995. p. 351–94.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hagan LD, Guilmette TJ. DSM-5: challenging diagnostic testimony. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2015;42:128–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hansen H, Braslow J, Rohrbaugh RMF. Cultural to structural competency – training psychiatry residents to act on social determinants of health and institutional racism. JAMA Psychiat. 2018;75(2):117–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hartung CM, Widiger TA. Gender differences in the diagnosis of mental disorders: conclusions and controversies of the DSM–IV. Psychol Bull. 1998;123(3):260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Haslam N, Holland E, Kuppens P. Categories versus dimensions in personality and psychopathology: a quantitative review of taxometric research. Psychol Med. 2012;42(5):903–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Haynes SN, Richard D, Kubany ES. Content validity in psychological assessment: a functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychol Assess. 1995;7(3):238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Horwitz AV. Creating mental illness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Houts AC. Discovery, invention, and the expansion of the modern diagnostic and statistical manuals of mental disorders. In: Beutler LE, Malik ML, editors. Decade of behavior. Rethinking the DSM: a psychological perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2002. p. 17–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Illich I. Medical nemesis: the expropriation of health. New York: Pantheon; 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Illich I. The medicalization of life. J Med Ethics. 1975;1(2):73–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Insel T. Post by former NIMH director Thomas Insel: transforming diagnosis; 2013. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/directors/thomas-insel/blog/2013/transforming-diagnosis.shtml. Accessed 18 Nov 2016.
  87. 87.
    Johnson SL, Wibbels E, Wilkinson R. Economic inequality is related to cross-national prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015;50(12):1799–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Johnstone L, Boyle M, Cromby J, editors. The power/threat/meaning: framework: beyond diagnosis to meaning-based patterns in emotional distress. In: Division of clinical psychology annual conference; 2017.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Johnstone L, Boyle M, with Cromby J, Dillon J, Harper D, Kinderman P, Longden E, Pilgrim D, Read J. The power threat meaning framework: overview. Leicester: British Psychological Society; 2018.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kamens S. Attenuated psychosis syndrome was not actually removed from DSM-5. DxSummit.org; 2013. Available from: http://dxsummit.org/archives/1728
  91. 91.
    Kamens S. Controversial issues for the future DSM-V. Society for humanistic psychology newsletter; 2010.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kamens SR, Cosgrove L, Peters SM, Jones N, Flanagan E, Longden E, et al. Standards and guidelines for the development of diagnostic nomenclatures and alternatives in mental health research and practice. J Humanist Psychol; 2018. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.umb.edu/10.1177/0022167818763862
  93. 93.
    Kamens SR, Elkins DN, Robbins BD. Open letter to the DSM-5. J Humanist Psychol. 2017;57(6):675–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kamens SR. On the proposed sexual and gender identity diagnoses for DSM-5: history and controversies. Humanist Psychol. 2011;39(1):37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kendler KS. A psychiatric dialogue on the mind-body problem. Am J Psychiatr. 2001;158(7):989–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kendler KS. The nature of psychiatric disorders. World Psychiatry. 2016;15(1):5–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kendler KS. Toward a philosophical structure for psychiatry. Am J Psychiatr. 2005;162(3):433–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kievit RA, Romeijn J-W, Waldorp LJ, Wicherts JM, Scholte HS, Borsboom D. Modeling mind and matter: reductionism and psychological measurement in cognitive neuroscience. Psychol Inq. 2011;22(2):139–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kim NS, Ahn W-k. Clinical psychologists’ theory-based representations of mental disorders predict their diagnostic reasoning and memory. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2002;131(4):451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kirkbride JB, Jones PB, Ullrich S, Coid JW. Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London. Schizophr Bull. 2012;40(1):169–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kirmayer LJ, Crafa D. What kind of science for psychiatry? Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:435.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kirmayer LJ. Beyond the ‘new cross-cultural psychiatry’: cultural biology, discursive psychology and the ironies of globalization. Transcult Psychiatry. 2006;43(1):126–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kirmayer LJ. Cultural variations in the response to psychiatric disorders and emotional distress. Soc Sci Med. 1989;29(3):327–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kirmayer LJ. Mind and body as metaphors: hidden values in biomedicine. In: Culture, illness, and healing, vol. 13. Dordrecht: Springer; 1998. p. 57–93.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kirschner SR. Diagnosis and its discontents: critical perspectives on psychiatric nosology and the DSM. Fem Psychol. 2013;23(1):10–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kleinman A, Good B. Culture and depression: studies in the anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry of affect and disorder. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1986.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kotov R, Krueger RF, Watson D, Achenbach TM, Althoff RR, Bagby RM, et al. The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. J Abnorm Psychol. 2017;126(4):454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Krimsky S. Science in the private interest: has the lure of profits corrupted biomedical research. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield; 2004.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kriss S. Book of lamentations. The New Inquiry; 2013 Available from: https://thenewinquiry.com/book-of-lamentations/
  110. 110.
    Kroska A, Harkness SK. Exploring the role of diagnosis in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. Soc Psychol Q. 2008;71(2):193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lane C. The American Psychiatric Association’s trial balloons. Psychology Today; 2011.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lasalvia A, Penta E, Sartorius N, Henderson S. Should the label “schizophrenia” be abandoned? Schizophr Res. 2015;162(1):276–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lebowitz MS. Biological conceptualizations of mental disorders among affected individuals: a review of correlates and consequences. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2014;21(1):67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lessig L. “Institutional corruption” defined. J Law Med Ethics. 2013;41(3):553–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Levine J. Materialism and qualia: the explanatory gap. Pac Philos Q. 1983;64(4):354–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lewis-Fernández R, Aggarwal NK, Bäärnhielm S, Rohlof H, Kirmayer LJ, Weiss MG, Jadhav S, Hinton L, Alarcón RD, Bhugra D, Groen S. Culture and psychiatric evaluation: operationalizing cultural formulation for DSM-5. Psychiatry. 2014;77(2):130–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Longdon E, Read J. ‘People with problems, not patients with Illnesses’: using psychosocial frameworks to reduce the stigma of psychosis. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2017;54(1):24–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Luhrmann TM, Padmavati R, Tharoor H, Osei A. Differences in voice-hearing experiences of people with psychosis in the USA, India and Ghana: interview-based study. Br J Psychiatry. 2015;206(1):41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Makowski AC, Mnich EE, Ludwig J, Daubmann A, Bock T, Lambert M, et al. Changes in beliefs and attitudes toward people with depression and schizophrenia – results of a public campaign in Germany. Psychiatry Res. 2016;237:271–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Marecek J, Gavey N. DSM-5 and beyond: a critical feminist engagement with psychodiagnosis. London: Sage Publications; 2013.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Markon KE, Chmielewski M, Miller CJ. The reliability and validity of discrete and continuous measures of psychopathology: a quantitative review. Psychol Bull. 2011;137(5):856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    McHugh MC, Chrisler JC. The wrong prescription for women: how medicine and media create a “need” for treatments, drugs, and surgery. Santa Barbara: Praeger; 2015, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2015. Xvi.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Metzl JM, Hansen H. Structural competency and psychiatry. JAMA Psychiat. 2018;75(2):115–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Metzl JM. The protest psychosis: how schizophrenia became a black disease. Boston: Beacon Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mills C. Decolonizing global mental health: the psychiatrization of the majority world. London/New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Miresco MJ, Kirmayer LJ. The persistence of mind-brain dualism in psychiatric reasoning about clinical scenarios. Am J Psychiatr. 2006;163(5):913–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Moncrieff J. Neoliberalism and biopsychiatry: a marriage of convenience. In: Cohen CI, Timimi S, editors. Liberatory psychiatry: philosophy, politics and mental health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 235–56.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Morawski J. Reflexivity. In: Encyclopedia of critical psychology. New York: Springer; 2014.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Moseley DD, Gala G. Philosophy and psychiatry: problems, intersections and new perspectives. London: Routledge; 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nagel T. The view from nowhere. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1989.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nemeroff CB, Weinberger D, Rutter M, MacMillan HL, Bryant RA, Wessely S, Stein DJ, Pariante CM, Seemüller F, Berk M, Malhi GS. DSM-5: a collection of psychiatrist views on the changes, controversies, and future directions. BMC Med. 2013;11(1):202.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Nietzsche FW. Beyond good and evil: prelude to a philosophy of the future. In: Horstmann R-P, Norman J, editors. Cambridge texts in the history of philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002 [Originally published in 1886].Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Oakland L, Berry K. “Lifting the veil”: a qualitative analysis of experiences in hearing voices network groups. Psychosis. 2015;7(2):119–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Olesen J, Gustavsson A, Svensson M, Wittchen HU, Jönsson B. The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19(1):155–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Parnas J, Sass LA, Zahavi D. Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object. Schizophr Bull. 2012;39(2):270–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Parnas J. The RDoC program: psychiatry without psyche? World Psychiatry. 2014;13(1):46–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Patil T, Giordano J. On the ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry: philosophical considerations and pragmatic tasks. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2010;  https://doi.org/10.1186/1747-5341-5-3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Petersen RC, Stevens JC, Ganguli M, Tangalos EG, Cummings J, DeKosky S. Practice parameter: early detection of dementia: mild cognitive impairment (an evidence-based review) report of the quality standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of neurology. Neurology. 2001;56(9):1133–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Phillips J. Conclusion. In: Paris J, Phillips J, editors. Making the DSM-5: concepts and controversies. New York: Springer; 2013.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Phillips J, Frances A, Cerullo MA, Chardavoyne J, Decker HS, First MB, et al. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue part 1: conceptual and definitional issues in psychiatric diagnosis. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2012;7(1):3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Pilecki BC, Clegg J, McKay D. The influence of corporate and political interests on models of illness in the evolution of the DSM. Eur Psychiatry. 2011;26(3):194–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Probst B. Queen of the owls: metaphor and identity in psychiatric diagnosis. Soc Work Ment Health. 2015;13(3):235–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Reddy LF, Horan WP, Green MF. Revisions and refinements of the diagnosis of schizophrenia in DSM 5. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2014;21(3):236–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Regier DA, Narrow WE, Clarke DE, Kraemer HC, Kuramoto SJ, Kuhl EA, et al. DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada, part II: test-retest reliability of selected categorical diagnoses. Am J Psychiatr. 2013;170(1):59–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rief W, Avorn J, Barsky AJ. Medication-attributed adverse effects in placebo groups: implications for assessment of adverse effects. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(2):155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Robbins B, Karter J, Gallagher K. Big pharma (kos): the stigmatized scapegoat of medicalisation and the ethics of psychiatric diagnosis. Psychother Sect Rev. 2015;56:84–96.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Robins E, Guze SB. Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatr. 1970;126(7):983–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Romme M, Escher S, Dillon J, Corstens D, Morris M. Living with voices: 50 stories of recovery. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS books; 2009.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ronson J. Bipolar kids: victims of the ‘madness industry’? New Sci. 2003;210(2815):44–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rose N. Neurochemical selves. Society. 2003;41(1):46–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rüsch N, Lieb K, Bohus M, Corrigan PW. Self-stigma, empowerment, and perceived legitimacy of discrimination among women with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2006;57(3):399–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Schoenen J, Gianni F, Schretlen L, Sobocki P. Cost estimates of brain disorders in Belgium. Acta Neurol Belg. 2006;106(4):208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Schrader S, Jones N, Shattell M. Mad pride: reflections on sociopolitical identity and mental diversity in the context of culturally competent psychiatric care. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2013;34(1):62–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schulz SL. The informed consent model of transgender care: an alternative to the diagnosis of gender dysphoria. J Humanist Psychol. 2018;58(1):72–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Schwartz RC, Blankenship DM. Racial disparities in psychotic disorder diagnosis: a review of empirical literature. World J Psychiatry. 2014;4(4):133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Schwartz RC, Feisthamel KP. Disproportionate diagnosis of mental disorders among African American versus European American clients: implications for counseling theory, research, and practice. J Couns Dev. 2009;87(3):295–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Scott WJ. PTSD in DSM-III: a case in the politics of diagnosis and disease. Soc Probl. 1990;37(3):294–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Scott WJ. Vietnam veterans since the war: the politics of PTSD, agent orange, and the national memorial. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Shaw C, Proctor GI. Women at the margins: a critique of the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Fem Psychol. 2005;15(4):483–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Silverstein C. The implications of removing homosexuality from the DSM as a mental disorder. Arch Sex Behav. 2009;38(2):161–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Spiegel H. Nocebo: the power of suggestibility. Prev Med. 1997;26(5 Pt 1):616–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Star SL. Simplification in scientific work: an example from neuroscience research. Soc Stud Sci. 1983;13(2):205–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Stoyanov D. A linkage of mind and brain: towards translational validity between neurobiology and psychiatry. Biomedi Rev. 2014;22:65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Summerfield D. Cross-cultural perspectives on the medicalization of human suffering. In: Rosen G, editor. Posttraumatic stress disorder: issues and controversies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2004. p. 233–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Summerfield D. How scientifically valid is the knowledge base of global mental health? Br Med J. 2008;336(7651):992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ting RSK, Sundararajan L. Culture, cognition, and emotion in China’s religious ethnic minorities: voices of suffering among the Yi. Cham: Springer; 2017.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Szasz TS. The myth of mental illness: foundations of a theory of personal conduct. New York: Harper & Row; 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tabb K. Philosophy of psychiatry after diagnostic kinds. Synthese. 2016:1–19.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Thornton T. Essential philosophy of psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Tiefer L. Female sexual dysfunction: a case study of disease mongering and activist resistance. PLoS Med. 2006;3(4):e178.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Tiefer L. The selling of ‘female sexual dysfunction’. J Sex Marital Ther. 2001;27(5):625–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Tortelli A, Errazuriz A, Croudace T, Morgan C, Murray R, Jones P, et al. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in Caribbean-born migrants and their descendants in England: systematic review and meta-analysis of incidence rates, 1950–2013. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015;50(7):1039–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Uher R, Payne JL, Pavlova B, Perlis RH. Major depressive disorder in DSM-5: implications for clinical practice and research of changes from DSM-IV. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31(6):459–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Ussher JM. Clinical psychology and sexual equality: a contradiction in terms? Fem Psychol. 1991;1(1):63–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ussher JM. Are we medicalizing women’s misery? A critical review of women’s higher rates of reported depression. Fem Psychol. 2010;20(1):9–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    van der Steen WJ, Ho VK, Karmelk FJ. Beyond boundaries of biomedicine: pragmatic perspectives on health and disease, vol. 4. Amsterdam: Rodopi; 2003.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    van Os J, Krabbendam L. Can the social environment cause schizophrenia? In: Kasper S, Papadimitriou GN, editors. Schizophrenia. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004. p. 54–62.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    van Os J. “schizophrenia” does not exist. Br Med J (Online). 2016:352.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i375
  179. 179.
    Wakefield JC. DSM-5 proposed diagnostic criteria for sexual paraphilias: tensions between diagnostic validity and forensic utility. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2011;34(3):195–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Wakefield JC. DSM-5: an overview of changes and controversies. Clin Soc Work J. 2013;41(2):139–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Watters E. Crazy like us: the globalization of the American psyche. New York: Simon and Schuster; 2010.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Whaley AL, Hall BN. Effects of cultural themes in psychotic symptoms on the diagnosis of schizophrenia in African Americans. Ment Health Relig Cult. 2009;12(5):457–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Whaley AL. Ethnicity/race, paranoia, and psychiatric diagnoses: clinician bias versus sociocultural differences. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 1997;19(1):1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Whaley AL. Cultural mistrust: an important psychological construct for diagnosis and treatment of African Americans. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2001;32(6):555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Whaley AL. The culturally-sensitive diagnostic interview research project: a study on the psychiatric misdiagnosis of African American patients. Afr Am Res Perspect. 2002;8(2):57–66.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Whitaker R, Cosgrove L. Psychiatry under the influence: institutional corruption, social injury, and prescriptions for reform. New York: Springer; 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Whitaker R. Anatomy of an epidemic: psychiatric drugs and the astonishing rise of mental illness in America. Ethical Hum Sci Serv. 2005;7(1):23–35.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Whooley O. Measuring mental disorders: the failed commensuration project of DSM-5. Soc Sci Med. 2016;166:33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Wieczner J. Drug companies look to profit from DSM-5: binge eating and hoarding diagnoses may lead to new sales. MarketWatch; 2013. [updated 6/5/2013]. Available from: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/new-psych-manual-could-create-drug-windfalls-2013-06-05
  190. 190.
    Wilson M. DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history. Am J Psychiatr. 1993;150:399–410.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wittchen H-U, Jacobi F, Rehm J, Gustavsson A, Svensson M, Jönsson B, et al. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21(9):655–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Yalom I. The gift of therapy. London: Piatkus; 2010.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Young A. The harmony of illusions: inventing post-traumatic stress disorder. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Zachar P. A metaphysics of psychopathology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Zachar P, Kendler KS. A diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders history of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2014;202(4):346–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Counseling and School PsychologyUniversity of Massachusetts BostonBostonUSA
  2. 2.Wesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA

Personalised recommendations